Model Question and Answers for APSC | Why did the ‘Moderates’ fail to carry conviction with the nation about their proclaimed ideology and political goals by the end of the nineteenth century?
Why did the ‘Moderates’ fail to carry conviction with the nation about their proclaimed ideology and political goals by the end of the nineteenth century?
Ans: Moderates were also known as Early nationalists, who were a group of political leaders in India active between 1885 and 1907. Their entry marked the start of the organised national movement in India. Few of the important moderate leaders were Pherozeshah Mehta and Dadabhai Naoroji.
Proclaimed ideology and political goals:
- The moderates believed that the British basically wanted to be just to the Indians but were not aware of the real Therefore, their political activity majorly involved constitutional agitation within the confines of the law.
- They wanted to create a strong public opinion to arouse consciousness and national spirit and educate and unite the people on common political questions and eventually persuade the Britishers to introduce reforms in India.
- They followed the method of prayer and petition and if that failed, they resorted to constitutional agitation.
Reasons for failure of the ‘Moderates’ to carry conviction with the nation:
- The movement led by moderates had a very narrow social base and the masses played a passive role. They lack political faith in the masses.
- They also failed to garner support from the Muslims and the British made use of this opportunity by exploiting the fear of a Hindu majority rule in India among them, if the moderates’ demand for an expanded legislative council were to be met.
- The Moderates also squandered the prospect of taking the industrial workers and women into confidence when they had the chance.
- They failed to widen their democratic base and scope of their demands.
- The method followed by moderates was widely criticized which also provided a base for the development of militant nationalism.
- The British government did not concede any of the major demands of the moderates. The Indian council's act of 1892 was also severely criticized.
- The moderates were majorly from law and political background therefore the political jargons used by them were alien to the uneducated masses.
However, the early nationalists did a great deal to awaken the national sentiment, even though they could not draw the masses to them. They trained a new generation of nationalists that would later add force to the freedom struggle. They represented the most progressive forces of the time. They exposed the basically exploitative character of colonial rule and created a solid base for a vigorous, militant, mass-based national movement in the years that followed.