Model Question and Answers for APSC | Why are the tribals in India referred to as the Scheduled Tribes? Indicate the major provisions enshrined in the Constitution of India for their upliftment.

Why are the tribals in India referred to as the Scheduled Tribes? Indicate the major provisions enshrined in the Constitution of India for their upliftment.

Model Question and Answers for APSC | Why are the tribals in India referred to as the Scheduled Tribes?  Indicate the major provisions enshrined in the Constitution of India  for their upliftment.

Ans: The term 'Scheduled Tribes' first appeared in the Constitution of  India. Article 366 (25) defined scheduled tribes as "such tribes or  tribal communities or parts of or groups within such tribes or tribal  communities as are deemed under Article 342 to be Scheduled  Tribes for the purposes of this constitution".

The tribal communities in India have been recognized by the Indian  Constitution under ‘Schedule 5’ of the constitution. Hence the  tribes recognized by the Constitution are known as ‘Scheduled  Tribes’.

The major provisions enshrined in the Constitution of India for their  upliftment:

1. Reservation is provided in educational institutions as well as  jobs for Scheduled Tribes (ST) – Article 15 (4) and Article 16  (4).

2. The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) under  338A to oversee implementation of provisions for Tribal rights

3. Article 46 of the Constitution provides that the State shall  promote with special care the educational and economic  interests of the weaker sections of the society and in  particular, of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and  shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of  exploitation.

4. Article 243D provides reservation of Seats for Scheduled  Tribes in Panchayats.

5. Article 330 provides reservation of seats for Scheduled Tribes  in the House of the People. Article 332 provides reservation of  seats for Scheduled Tribes in Legislative Assemblies of the  States.

6. Article 23 which prohibits traffic in human beings and beggar  and other similar forms of forced labour has a special  significance for Scheduled Tribes. In pursuance of this Article,  Parliament has enacted the Bonded Labour System (Abolition)  Act, 1976.

7. Similarly, Article 24 which prohibits employment of Children  below the age of 14 years in any factory or mine or in any  other hazards activity is also significant for Scheduled Tribes  as a substantial portion of child labour engaged in these jobs  belong to Scheduled Tribes.