Model Question and Answers for APSC | What problems were germane to the decolonization process of the Malay Peninsula.
What problems were germane to the decolonization process of the Malay Peninsula.
Ans: The Malay Peninsula comprises South Myanmar (Burma), Southern Thailand, Malaya, and Singapore. Its population comprises the majority of Malays and minorities Chinese and Indians.
Decolonization is the process of the cessation of colonialism. A phase of decolonization was noticed after the second world war when most of the imperial nations started transferring power to the native people. With increasing anti-colonialism, the British found it pertinent as well as convenient to hand over the reins of power to indigenous Malay.
Problems were germane to the decolonization process of the Malay Peninsula:
- During WW II, Malaya was overrun by Japanese troops. After the defeat of Japan in WW II, the British had to put down a communist insurgency in the peninsula.
- Apart from the ruins of WW II, the Malay Peninsula had to manage the social tensions, and economic issues (especially the slump in rubber demand) and tackle a communist insurgency when the British departed from the region.
- The commodity prices and exchange rates were in fluctuated condition after world war II. World war II severely hit the construction and infrastructure sector.
- The total development process was The resultant unemployment was a breeding ground for communist insurgency and political unrest.
- The natural rubber was replaced by synthetic rubber causing job loss for many people.
- Given the large population of the indigenous Malay, post- independent Malaysia kept Islam and Malay as the national religion and national languages Govt also provided reservation quotas in favour of indigenous Malay.
- But the Chinese were ahead of the other two races in terms of education and economic They formed an opposition party and won the second general election, which resulted in racial riots and a state of emergency.
- The disenchanted Chinese ethnic groups were folded into the ranks of communist The ongoing Cold war and Vietnam war further aggravated the matters with the involvement of foreign players. Consequently, the insurgency continued to disturb Malaysian peace efforts and nation- building till the late 80s.
The main reason behind the decolonization of the Malayan Peninsula was the syncretization process between the Malayan nationalist and the European colonial powers. Their mutual action results in a speedy decolonization process.