Model Question and Answers for APSC | What is Nano science and technology? Give an account as to how it can be used for medical and pharmaceutical sectors. (APSC Mains 2020 GS- III)
Ans : The word Nanoscience refers to the study, manipulation and engineering of matter, particles and structures on the nanometer scale (one millionth of a millimetre, the scale of atoms and molecules).
Application of Nanoscience: Nanotechnology
1. Important properties of materials, such as the electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties, are determined by the way molecules and atoms assemble on the nanoscale into larger structures.
2. Moreover, in nanometer size structures these properties are often different then on macroscale, because quantum mechanical effects become important.
3. Nanotechnology is the application of nanoscience leading to the use of new nanomaterials and nanosize components in useful products.
Application of Nano tech in medical and pharmaceutical sectors: Nanotechnology is already leading to dramatic improvements in health care. For example:
Use of Gold nanoparticles for cancer detection and treatment
Deliver medication directly to cancer cells
Imaging and diagnostic tools
Nanotechnology is also being used for DNA sequencing
1. Nanopharmaceuticals represent an emerging field where the sizes of the drug particle or a therapeutic delivery system work at the nanoscale.
2. In the pharmaceutical industry, a long-standing issue is the difficulty of delivering the appropriate dose of a particular active agent to a specific disease site.
3. Nanopharmaceuticals have enormous potential in addressing this failure of traditional therapeutics which offers sitespecific targeting of active agents.
4. Such precision targeting via nanopharmaceuticals reduces toxic systemic side effects, resulting in better patient compliance.