Model Question and Answers for APSC | What is a Biodiversity hotspot? Write about the biodiversity significance of Northeast India.
Ans: There are places on Earth that are both biologically rich — and deeply threatened. These are known as Biodiversity hotspots. For our own sake, we must work to protect them.
To qualify as a biodiversity hotspot, a region must meet two strict criteria:
1. It must have at least 1,500 vascular plants as endemics
2. It must have 30% or less of its original natural vegetation
Northeast has 2 biodiversity hotspots:
1. Indo Malaya Biodiversity Hotspot
2. Himalayan Biodiversity Hotspot
The biodiversity significance of Northeast India
1. The Northeast region of India comprising of the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram, Nagaland and Sikkim can be physiographically categorized into the Eastern Himalayas, Northeast hills (Patkai-Naga Hills and Lushai Hills) and the Brahmaputra and Barak Valley plains.
2. At the confluence of the Indo-Malayan, IndoChinese and Indian biogeographical realms, the NE region is unique in providing a profusion of habitats, which features diverse biota with a high level of endemism.
3. The region is also the abode of approximately 225 tribes in India, out of 450 in the country, the culture and customs of which have an important role in understanding biodiversity conservation and management issues.