Model Question and Answers for APSC | “The incidence and intensity of poverty are more important in determining poverty based on income alone”. In this context analyze the latest United Nations Multidimensional Poverty Index Report.

Model Question and Answers for APSC | “The incidence and intensity of poverty are more important in determining poverty based on income alone”. In this context analyze the latest United Nations Multidimensional Poverty Index Report.

Ans :  Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) is released by the United Nation Development rogramme (UNDP). It includes both incidence and intensity of poverty. Incidence means the number of the poor. Intensity means the level of deprivation measured in Health, education and standards of living which are vehicles for social mobilization out of poverty.
Thus we can say that incidence and intensity of poverty are more important in determining the multidimensional nature of poverty which prohibits mobilization and growth by certain deprivations beyond income.
Poverty → income-based analysis → problem of growth Multidimensional Poverty (deprivation in Health, education and standard of living) → capability-based analysis → Highlights poverty as a problem of growth, governance and political economy.
According to Global MPI 2020, India is 62nd among 107 countries with an MPI score of 0.123 and 27.91% headcount ratio, based on the NFHS 4 (2015/16) data. India lifted as many as 270 million people out of multidimensional poverty between 2005-06 and 2015-16.
Implications:
Helps in the monitoring of progress in various SDGs NITI Aayog as the nodal agency has been assigned the responsibility of leveraging the monitoring mechanism of the Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) to drive reforms.
Global MPI is part of the Government of India’s decision to monitor the performance of the country in 29 select Global Indices. 
The objective of the “Global Indices to Drive Reforms and Growth (GIRG)” exercise is to fulfil the need to measure and monitor India’s performance on various important social and economic parameters and enable the utilisation of these Indices as tools for self-improvement, bring about reforms in policies while improving last-mile implementation of government schemes.
The latest NFHS 5 (2019/20) is set to see remarkable national improvement brought about by focused schemes and interventions in these parameters since NFHS 4, especially in sanitation, cooking fuel, housing, drinking water and electricity. The survey has been paused due to the COVID-19 pandemic.