Model Question and Answers for APSC | “The Himalayas are highly prone to landslides.” Discuss the causes and suggest suitable measures of mitigation.
“The Himalayas are highly prone to landslides.” Discuss the causes and suggest suitable measures of mitigation.
Ans: A landslide is a natural phenomenon influenced by gravity which causes downward movement of materials such as soil, rocks, mud, and so on. In the past, landslides have triggered numerous mishaps and are a key danger to human life and assets.
Due to the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates, the Himalayan mountain range was formed after a huge bang. Continuous moment of plates makes the landscape/slope brittle, fragile, and vulnerable to landslides. Risk preparedness and an effective alert system are necessary to avoid the loss of human life and property.
Debris avalanches and landslides occur more frequently in the Himalayas because
- There are many reasons for One, the Himalayas are tectonically active.
- They are mostly made up of sedimentary rocks and unconsolidated and semi-consolidated deposits.
- The slopes are very steep.
- Extreme rainfall events like cloudbursts
- Glacial Lake Outburst Floods
- Rapid glacial melting in the Himalayan region due to climate change
Suitable measures of mitigation:
- Hazard and vulnerability analysis and Development activities based on that
- Regular monitoring of glacial melting and Glacial lakes, Early warning system for extreme rainfall events
- Grazing should be completely After the area is completely protected from grazing, better grasses can be planted. Stopping Jhum cultivation.
- More approach toward afforestation, which consolidates the soil around the roots of the tree and protects it from loosening.
- Limited construction and mining activities with more geographical research around sensitive areas.
- Arrangement of proper drainage for rainwater will ensure no waterlogging.
- Setting up an expert team with geologists and other professionals to conduct frequent routine checkups may work as a preventive measure.
The Himalayas are sensitive ecosystems that need urgent protection. More so in a climate change-ridden age.