Model Question and Answers for APSC | Present an account of the Indus Water Treaty and examine its ecological, economic and political implications in the context of changing bilateral relations.
Present an account of the Indus Water Treaty and examine its ecological, economic and political implications in the context of changing bilateral relations.
Ans: The IWT is a treaty between India and Pakistan that governs water distribution.
The World Bank mediated it (then the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development). The treaty governs the sharing of water between the two countries along six rivers: the Beas, Ravi, Sutlej, Indus, Chenab, and Jhelum.
On September 19, 1960, it was signed in Karachi by then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and President of Pakistan Ayub Khan.
The treaty granted India control over three eastern rivers: the Ravi, the Beas, and the Sutlej. While Pakistan was given control over three western rivers - the Indus, Jhelum, and Chenab.
- According to the treaty, India received approximately 16% of the total water of the Indus system, while Pakistan received 84%.
- The treaty's storage capacity for establishing hydropower stations is much less than the total annual silt that could fulfil the total hydro potential.
- In order to keep its reservoirs operational, Jammu and Kashmir had to resort to expensive de-silting.
- Pakistan is constructing several multi-purpose water reservoirs that could endanger downstream areas in Pakistan as well as the Kutch region in India in the event of an accident such as a dam break or earthquake.
- The improved irrigation facility brought about by the ratification of the Indus Waters Treaty resulted in an increase in agricultural production for both India and Pakistan.
- Many opportunities for development, irrigation, and economic expansion have Dam construction will ensure both countries' energy supply.
- From a diplomatic standpoint, the treaty is extremely important in Violations of the ceasefire agreement are common on the Pakistani side.
- Aside from that, Pakistan encourages terrorist attacks in Jammu and Kashmir, either directly or indirectly.
- By cutting off the water supply to the Indus River Basin, India could put diplomatic pressure on Pakistan to eradicate terrorism.
India's role as a responsible upper riparian adhering to the treaty's provisions has been remarkable, but the country is being pressed to reconsider the extent to which it can remain committed to the provisions as its overall political relations with Pakistan become intractable. IWT is frequently cited as an example of the peaceful coexistence possibilities that exist despite the troubled relationship between the two neighbouring countries.