Model Question and Answers for APSC | ‘Poverty Alleviation Programmes in India remain mere show pieces until and unless they are backed by political will’. Discuss with reference to the performance of the major poverty alleviation programmes in India.
‘Poverty Alleviation Programmes in India remain mere show pieces until and unless they are backed by political will’. Discuss with reference to the performance of the major poverty alleviation programmes in India.
Ans: In India, the program to alleviate poverty was initiated during the reign of Indira Gandhi. During the fifth five-year plan, the "Garibi Hatao Desh Bachao" plan was conceived. Initially, India was entirely dependent on the agricultural economy. It relied solely on imports to meet its food requirements. Even after taking numerous measures to eradicate poverty, the problem persists.
Major Poverty alleviation Programs and strategies:
Employment Generation based:
- Self-Employment: The PM Rozgar Yojana (PMRY) was launched in 1993 for educated unemployed youth. It offers a loan of up to 10 Lakh for the establishment of small businesses and industries.
- PM Employment Generation Programme (PREGP), a 1995 initiative forthe establishment of new self-employment ventures/projects/micro businesses annually.
- Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY), a scheme launched in rural areas in 1999, lifts impoverished families above the poverty line by organizing them into SHGs using a combination of bank credit and government subsidies.
- Mudra Scheme, Star-up India, Skill India, USTAAD
- Launched in 2005, MGNREGA was intended to guarantee the "Right to Work." It provides 100 days of guaranteed employment to rural households annually; it is the world's largest and most ambitious social security and public works program.
- The 2014 World Development Report referred to it as an "outstanding example of rural development."
Nutrition enhancement based:
- National Food Security Act, 2013 and Antyodaya Anna Yojana(AAY) are a few examples. Recently government launched PM Garib Kalyan Yojana.
Social Security-based services:
- Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana(PMGY) -2000: Additional central assistance is given to states for basic services such as primary health, primary education, rural shelter, rural drinking water & rural electrification.
- Ayushman Bharat: Health insurance of up to ₹5L is provided to 10Crore of the poorest families in India.
Challenges faced in their implementation:
- Errors in the identification of beneficiaries prevent a portion of the targeted communities from being reached.
- Corruption on a massive scale, Extortion by 'Agents & Middlemen,' lax Systems & Weak Integrity, and a frail Civil Society.
- For instance, the budget allocated to the MGNREGA through the National Employment Guarantee Fund ran dry Such occurrences result in delayed payments to employees who later choose not to work in MGREGS, thereby contributing to the mission's failure.
- Leakage in the PDS system remains a source of concern.
- The multiplicity of programs increases the cost of each program.
- Beneficiaries are frequently unaware of their benefits.
- Under Ayushman Bharat, for instance, private hospitals perform unnecessary procedures, which could be reduced if a sufficient number of audits are conducted.
- There has been a reduction in allocation to these programs, and direct benefit transfer has become more prevalent.
- The implementation of Jan-Dhan-Aadhar Mobile (Jan Trinity) increases the process's transparency and reduces leakage as well as inclusion and exclusion errors.
- Examine the operation of each program and look for errors and mismanagement on the part of both public and private partners.
- To address the individual deficiencies of the schemes.