Model Question and Answers for APSC | Most of the unusual climatic happenings are explained as an outcome of the El-Nino effect. Do you agree?

Most of the unusual climatic happenings are explained as an outcome of the El-Nino effect. Do you agree?

Model Question and Answers for APSC | Most of the unusual climatic happenings are explained as an outcome of the El-Nino effect. Do you agree?

Ans: El Niño is a climate pattern that describes the unusual warming of surface waters in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. El Nino is the “warm phase” of a larger phenomenon called the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). La Nina, the “cool phase” of ENSO, is a pattern that describes the unusual cooling of the region’s surface waters. El Niño and La Niña are considered the ocean part of ENSO, while the Southern Oscillation is its atmospheric changes.

The unusual climatic happenings are explained as an outcome of the El-Nino effect:

  • El Niño has an impact on ocean temperatures, the speed and strength of ocean currents, the health of coastal fisheries, and local weather from Australia to South America and beyond.
  • El Niño events occur irregularly at two- to seven-year However, El Niño is not a regular cycle or predictable in the sense that ocean tides are.
  • El Niño events are defined by their wide-ranging Teleconnections are large-scale, long-lasting climate anomalies or patterns that are related to each other and can affect much of the globe.
  • Led by the work of Sir Gilbert Walker in the 1930s, climatologists determined that El Niño occurs simultaneously with the Southern Climatologists define these linked phenomena as El Niño- Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

Impacts across the world:

  • El Niño has a devastating impact on Ecuadorian and Peruvian El Niño also produces widespread and sometimes severe changes in the climate.
  • Convection above warmer surface waters brings increased Rainfall increases drastically in Ecuador and northern Peru, contributing to coastal flooding and erosion.
  • As El Niño brings rain to South America, it brings droughts to Indonesia and Australia. These droughts threaten the region’s water supplies, as reservoirs dry and rivers carry less water.
  • These strong temperature increases caused severe climatic changes: Australia experienced harsh drought conditions; typhoons occurred in Tahiti, and record rainfall and flooding hit central Chile. The west coast of North America was unusually stormy during the winter season, and fish catches were dramatically reduced from Chile to Alaska.
  • The Indian monsoon is weakened by El Nino.

 

Role of other factors in unusual climatic happenings:

 

  1. El Nino is itself part of a larger system ENSO
  2. Other phenomena like Indian Ocean Dipole, Rossby waves, Jet streams, and polar vortices also influence climate and produce extreme events
  3. Above climate change is changing weather dynamics across the world.