Model Question and Answers for APSC | Justify the rationale for India's goal to become a gas-based economy. Identify various usages of natural gas and give a brief account of its distribution globally.
Ans : The government has already set a vision to make India a gas-based economy. The goal is to increase the share of gas in the energy mix from the current 6 per cent to 15 per cent in 2030. We have already witnessed a growing demand for natural gas owing to higher availability at reasonable prices, its attribute of being a cleaner fuel, and of course improvement in supply and distribution infrastructure over the years.
The rationale for India goal to become a gasbased economy:
1. It is used as a fuel for electric power generation
2. Industrial and commercial usage, for exampleas feedstock in the manufacture of fertilizers, plastics and other commercially important compounds like ammonia.
3. It is used for cooking in households in the form of LPG.
4. It is used as a cheap and environment-friendly alternative to transportation fuel in the form of CNG in vehicles like buses and commercial automotive fleets.
5. It is an ingredient in dyes and inks and used in rubber compounding operations
Distribution of natural gas globally:
1. Natural Gas in Russia: Russia has the largest natural gas reserves in the world (1,680 Tcf). It periodically changes places with the United States as the world’s largest or second-largest producer.
2. Natural Gas in North America: The United States has proven natural gas reserves of 341 Tcf. Its largest as field. Canada has an estimated 62 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves. Much of Mexico’s natural gas comes from the Gulf of Mexico.
3. Natural Gas in Europe: Dutch coast and the North Sea (off the coast of Norway) have proven reserves
4. Natural Gas in Africa: Central basin of Algeria and the Niger Delta have proven reserves.
5. Natural Gas in Asia: The largest gas field in Asia is in the North Sumatra basin of Indonesia.
6. India, as of 31 March 2018, had estimated reserves of 1,339.57 billion cubic meters with the share of the Eastern Offshore being 38.13% and Western Offshore being 23.33%.
Natural gas, being a relatively clean fuel, is increasing in importance globally. It currently makes up about 6.2% of the entire energy consumption in India which is targeted to increase to 15% by 2030 to cut carbon emissions in the economy.