Model Question and Answers for APSC | Highlight the importance of the new objectives that got added to the vision of Indian independence in the twenties of the last century.
Highlight the importance of the new objectives that got added to the vision of Indian independence in the twenties of the last century.
Ans: The history of the Indian National Movement can be divided into three important phases:
- 1885-1905: The phase of moderate nationalism when the Congress continued to be loyal to the British crown.
- 1906-1916: Rise of Swadeshi Movement, militant nationalism and the Home Rule Movement.
- 1917-1947: The Gandhian era.
The new objectives that got added to the vision of Indian independence in the twenties of the last century:
- Gandhiji tried to uplift the scheduled castes and tribes through constructive B.R. Ambedkar established an institution named Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha in 1924 to nullify the problems of the untouchables and address their grievances before the government. E. V. Ramasamy started the Self-Respect Movement in 1925.
- During the time of the khilafat movement, Hindu Muslim unity was noticed and women also participated.
- In 1928, the Nehru report was published that intended to provide voting rights and equal fundamental rights to both men and The women were given voting rights.
- Hindustan Socialist Republican Association, Gadar Party, Swaraj Party, Krishak Praja Party, and the non-cooperation movement led by Gandhiji had become the voice of the introduction of socialistic welfare ideology & rural development.
- Indian youth had responded eagerly to Gandhi’s non- cooperation movement, but the sudden withdrawal was a blow to their aspirations. So, they started to feel attracted to the revolutionary movements – particularly in Punjab and Bengal.
- Demand for linguistic states emerged after the Nagpur session of 1920
- Champaran Satyagraha, Kheda Satyagraha, Ahmedabad mill strike, Mappila rebellion, and Eka movement succeeded to fulfill the demand of the peasants and workers.
The importance of the new objectives
- All these inclusive movements inform constituent assembly debates and led to the formation of one of the most inclusive constitutions of that time.
- Women got the universal right to vote from start itself
- SC and ST got constitutional safeguards against untouchability and also got the promise of affirmative action in articles 15, 16 and 46
- Farmers got the promise of self-rule in form of panchayats (Article 40), cottage industries (article 43) and animal husbandry along modern and scientific lines (article 48)
- Articles 38, 39 and 43 ensure a socialistic pattern of society and secure a living wage, a decent standard of living and social and cultural opportunities for all workers
- Formation of linguistic states in 1956
Thus new forces added colours to the polyphony of the Indian national movement and enriched times to come with their diverse and universal concerns.