Model Question and Answers for APSC | Discuss the reasons for repeated floods in Assam every year. Almost every year its face 2-3 wave of a flood through the Brahmaputra River system, which affects most of Assam.

Discuss the reasons for repeated floods in Assam every year. Almost every year its face 2-3 wave of a flood through the Brahmaputra River system, which affects most of Assam.

Model Question and Answers for APSC | Discuss the reasons for repeated floods in Assam every year. Almost every year its face 2-3 wave of a flood through the Brahmaputra River system, which affects most of Assam.

Ans: The reasons for repeated floods in Assam every year:

  • River Brahmaputra originates in the Tibetan plateau, where the temperature is rising every decade which increased the melting of glaciers and snow caps. This has resulted in a larger flow of water Assam is located downstream of the river and is more affected by the flood.
  • Brahmaputra river takes a sharp turn at Goalpara village, causing maximum red alerts and flooding in that area.
  • Human settlement and the construction in the flood plains of river Brahmaputra and its tributaries have cause obstructed natural flow of water, in the flood-prone regions.
  • Highways and railway lines have been constructed parallel to the Brahmaputra River, to act as a bund for preventing excess water from flowing inland which also prevents the outflow of water from the inland area into the river, causing localized, rainfall-based flooding.
  • Climatic condition- With a tropical monsoon rainforest climate, Assam, a temperate region experiences high rainfall and humidity. Typically, the South-West monsoon causes heavy rainfall from June to flooding.
  • Widespread jhum cultivation practice-The traditional slash-and- burn cultivation in hilly areas of Assam also known as jhum or shifting cultivation, removes the upper protective layer of soil from the land, making it more prone to erosion by rain and less porous to absorb water. A huge amount of soil and dead materials of the plants flow and get deposited into the river basin.
  • Brahmaputra factor- The Brahmaputra River flows through Assam over a length of around 650km with an average width of 5.46km, making it the principal river that crisscrosses the flood plains and narrow channels, heavy siltation and shifting the river beds create natural reasons for floods in Assam.
  • Climate change- Rising temperatures have caused increased rainfall and flash floods in the last few years. High rain has decreased the water carrying capacity of the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries.
  • Construction of Embankments- Embankments are constructed to confine the course of a river. However, this solution has evolved to be an added challenge over time in Assam.

Way Forward:

  • Appropriate meteorological forecasting: to enable an early warning system for predicting the intensity and scale of floods so that rescue measures can be planned accordingly. It will help to dissipate more credible information so that preparedness can be improved and residents can be alerted.
  • Integrated flood management program: by the government of India, State Government of Assam, and local authorities.
  • Monitoring and mapping of changes in the river course using satellite imagery.
  • A Center for disaster management should be established in Assam to carry out studies for the effective implementation of measures.
  • Social infrastructure like hospitals, schools, and community centres need to be located at a safe distance from flood-prone regions.
  • Vegetation should be encouraged in the wetland and near the river bank to act as a barrier against the flood.