Model Question and Answers for APSC | Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalization on women in India.
Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalization on women in India.
Ans: Globalization arrived in India through an external and internal alignment of political and economic forces that led to the opening of the country to the outside world. The five processes under globalization are:
- commercialism wherein more services become monetized and incomes are received in money rather than in kind;
- more capitalization;
- foreign trade becomes important for the production and distribution process;
- greater financialization develops; and
- international capital moves freely.
In countries like India where women suffer from serious discrimination, whatever affects the household will worsen women's position. Thus, the process of liberalization, privatization, and globalization will put the clock back for women and for the poor in general. However there are positive influences also.
Positive Impacts of globalization:
- Globalization has undermined the traditional role of women in homemaking, farming, livestock, animal husbandry, handicrafts, handlooms etc and resulted in a relatively better environment for women.
- Women have more jobs, become more active in avenues generally reserved for men, and have played a more prominent role in society and are not just restricted to the It has affected both the quantity and the quality of work available to the majority of women in India.
- Prospects of higher and quality education have become feasible for those women who can afford them, economically and socially.
- Employment in technological and other advanced sectors, which have a global bearing, has opened up for suitably qualified women.
- With changing attitudes towards women, especially in the urban areas, women enjoy a more egalitarian set of gender relationships.
- Augmentation of women’s movements through exposure at the international level will help bring about major changes in the economic, social and political lives of women.
- Reduction in gender inequalities will have a positive effect on women’s empowerment in the socio-economic context.
- Attitudinal changes towards women’s role in the family due to good education, benefits of family planning and health care, child care, good job opportunities etc. will surely help in the development of more confident and healthy women.
- A positive approach to economic and cultural migration will facilitate women to be exposed to better prospects at the international level.
Negative effects of globalization:
- These changes affect women more than men in different Capitalization results in more self-employed marginal farmers becoming wage workers, making it less possible for women to manage domestic duties alongside their productive work.
- In general, macro-economic policies affect women through the household, market, and gender relations.
- Globalization has increased the number of low-paid, part-time and exploitative jobs for women. Increased prices due to the open economy demand more to cope with changes from women.
- With increasing nuclear families, the older women’s life has become pitiable, sometimes spending their later days in old age homes and isolation.
- The feminization of the population has further aggravated this Similarly, male migration from rural areas to urban centres has put women under a triple burden of home- making, farming and job in the rural sector.
- At the same time, the migration of women for economic reasons has led to increased exploitation including sexual exploitation and trafficking.