Model Question and Answers for APSC | Discuss the Nano-Mission launched by the government. Explain what you understand by nanotechnology and its application.
Ans : Nanotechnology is the term given to those areas of science and engineering where phenomena that take place at dimensions in the nanometre scale are utilised in the design, characterisation, production and application of materials, structures, devices and systems.
Although in the natural world there are many examples of structures that exist with nanometre dimensions (referred to as the nanoscale), including essential molecules within the human body and components of foods, and although many technologies have incidentally involved nanoscale structures for many years, it has only been in the last quarter of a century that it has been possible to actively and intentionally modify molecules and structures within this size range.
It is this control at the nanometre scale that distinguishes nanotechnology from other areas of technology. In short, Nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers.
Applications of Nanotechnology:
1. Transistors, the basic switches that enable all modern computing, have gotten smaller and smaller through
2. Ultra-high definition displays and televisions are now being sold that use quantum dots to produce more vibrant colours while being more energy efficient.
Healthcare and Medicine
1. Nanotech detectors for heart attack
2. Nanocarriers for eye surgery, chemotherapy, etc.
3. Nanoparticles for drug delivery to the brain – for therapeutic treatment of neurological disorders
4. NanoFlares – used for detection of cancer cells in the bloodstream
1. Solar paints or photovoltaic paints – can replace solar panels. Applying solar paints to any surface will enable it to capture energy from the sun and transform it into electricity. This can be used in houses and cars.
2. Wind power generations – nanogenerators – these are flexible thin sheets which when bent can generate potential power.
3. Nanobatteries – these are used to help rechargeable lithium-ion batteries last longer.
Agriculture and Food
1. Nano fertilisers
2. Sensors for food-borne pathogens
3. Nanoemulsions – to reduce bacteria on produce
4. Nanoparticles based on titanium dioxide – used as antimicrobial agents
In 2007, the GOI launched a 5-year program called Nano Mission; it was allocated a budget of Rs 1,000 crores. It had a wider scope of objectives and much larger funding. Fields involved in the mission were: basic research in nanotechnology, infrastructure development, human resources development, and global collaboration. Many institutions and departments were roped in for the work such as the Department of IT, DRDO, Department of Biotechnology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), etc. In both IIT Bombay and IISC Bangalore, National Centers for Nanofabrication and Nanoelectronics were established.
Indian Rank in Nano Technology:
India ranked 3rd in papers published in 2018 behind only the USA and China.
There have been many patent applications in this field.
India has published over 23,000 papers in nanoscience.