Model Question and Answers for APSC | Describe the various causes and the effects of landslides. Mention the important components of the National Landslide Risk Management Strategy. (UPSC MAINS 2021)

Model Question and Answers for APSC | Describe the various causes and the effects of landslides. Mention the important components of the National Landslide Risk Management Strategy. (UPSC MAINS 2021)

Ans : A landslide is defined as the movement of a mass of rock, debris, or earth down a slope. Landslides are a type of "mass wasting," which denotes any down-slope movement of soil and rock under the direct influence of gravity.
Landslide hazards rank high among the hydrogeological hazards because they pose a threat to life and livelihood ranging from disruptions of normal activities to widespread loss of life, property and destruction in large parts of the mountainous region of India. Himalayan and other hilly regions of India are affected by landslides and landmass movement activities.
Various causes of landslides
1. Tectonically unstable region like Himalayas (Earthquake and Volcanic activity)
2. Heavy snowfall like in Himalayas
3. Heavy rainfall like in western Ghats
4. Changes in groundwater

5. Soft unconsolidated deposits on slopes like in Himalayas
6. Steep slopes like those in Himalayas
The effects of landslides
1. Destruction of life and property
2. Loss of top soil and agriculture crops
3. Loss of biodiversity
National Landslide Risk Management Strategy
1. Landslide Hazard Zonation
2. Landslide Monitoring and Early Warning System
3. Awareness Programmes
4. Capacity Building and Training of Stakeholders
5. Preparation of Mountain Zone Regulations and Policies
6. Stabilisation and Mitigation of Landslide and Creation of Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) for Landslide Management