Model Question and Answers for APSC | Bring out the causes for the formation of heat islands in the urban habitat of the world.

Bring out the causes for the formation of heat islands in the urban habitat of the world.

Model Question and Answers for APSC | Bring out the causes for the formation of heat islands in the urban habitat of the world.

Ans: An Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a section of a city or metropolitan area with significantly higher temperatures than the surrounding countryside due to excessive human activity. The temperature difference is usually noticeable at night and when the winds are light. The UHI is most visible during the summer and winter seasons.

 

The causes for the formation of heat islands:

  • A UHI effect can be caused by a variety of factors. Dark surfaces, for example, absorb far more solar heat and radiation, which is why roads, pavements, and building roofs in urban areas experience higher temperatures than their counterparts in suburban and rural areas
  • The reason for this is that the materials commonly used in urban areas for pavement and roofs, such as concrete and asphalt, have significantly different thermal bulk properties than the surrounding rural areas, such as heat capacity and thermal conductivity.
  • As a result, urban areas frequently experience higher temperatures than surrounding rural areas.
  • UHI can also be caused by geometric effects. Tall buildings in many cities provide multiple surfaces for reflection and
  • Waste heat from automobiles, air conditioning, industry, and other sources also contributes to the UHI.
  • Other factors include a reduction in vegetation, water bodies and crop fields as a result of unplanned expansion and urbanization.

Impact:

Heat islands contribute to higher daytime temperatures, reduced nighttime cooling, and higher air-pollution levels. These, in turn, contribute to heat- related deaths and heat-related illnesses such as general discomfort, respiratory difficulties, heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and non-fatal heat stroke.

Policymakers should prioritise reducing unplanned expansion by increasing opportunities in rural areas and planning for future growth. Further planning should include passive cooling measures as well as a proper ventilation setup. To summarise, increasing global warming necessitates anthropogenic intervention to make the planet habitable, but these interventions must be foolproof.