Model Question and Answers for APSC | Analyze the circumstances that led to Tashkent Agreement in 1966. Discuss the highlights of the agreement.
Analyze the circumstances that led to Tashkent Agreement in 1966. Discuss the highlights of the agreement.
Ans: Tashkent Agreement is an accord signed by India’s prime minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan’s president Ayub Khan ending the 17-day war between Pakistan and India from August–September 1965. A cease-fire had been secured by the United Nations Security Council on Sept. 22, 1965.
The circumstances that led to Tashkent Agreement
- In 1965, the two countries engaged in a more serious armed Pakistan conducted armed attacks in Gujarat’s Rann of Kutch in April 1965.
- In August and September, a larger offensive in Jammu and Kashmir was The operation’s goal was to take Kashmir by inciting the local population to revolt against the Indian government. The mission failed.
- Shastri ordered Indian troops to mount a counter-offensive on the Punjab border to relieve pressure on the Kashmir front. The Indian army came dangerously close to Lahore in a furious battle.
The mediation was done through the USSR, upon which a meeting was held at Tashkent, from 4th to 10th January 1966 in order to create a more lasting peace between India and Pakistan. The discussion was between Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri, and Pakistani President Muhammad Ayub Khan being moderated by Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin
The highlights of the agreement
- The parties agreed to withdraw all armed forces to positions held before Aug. 5, 1965; to restore diplomatic relations; and to discuss economic, refugee, and other
- They agreed to make every effort in conformity with the United Nations Charter to promote amicable ties between India and Pakistan.
- Both India and Pakistan agree to follow the principle of non- interference in their affairs and to discourage the use of propaganda against each other.
- Both countries also agree to resume normal diplomatic operations and return their respective High Commissioners to their offices.
- Measures were to be done to restore commercial and trade links, as well as communications and cultural interactions between the two countries. Actions were to be done to put existing agreements between Pakistan and India into effect.
- Prisoners of war from both countries would be returned home.
Despite being considered a triumph at the time, the Tashkent Declaration failed to prevent a future conflict between India and Pakistan. A potential that still exists today. The omission of a no- war commitment in the Tashkent Declaration was criticised in India, as was the absence of any reference of Pakistan renouncing its backing for insurgency action in Kashmir. The proclamation only ended hostilities between India and Pakistan at the time, but it did not resolve the Kashmir issue, which neither side has been able to resolve to this day.