Model question | 26-07-2023

Model question | 26-07-2023

Model question | 26-07-2023

GS 3 Paper CSE 2022

Q19. What are the different elements of cyber security? Keeping in view the challenges in cyber security examine the extent to which India has successfully developed a comprehensive National Cyber Security Strategy. (Answer in 250 words) 15 mark


Cybersecurity encompasses a range of elements aimed at protecting computer systems, networks, and data from unauthorized access, attacks, and threats. These elements include technical, organisational, and legal measures to ensure the security and resilience of digital infrastructure. India, like many other nations, faces numerous challenges in cybersecurity. This essay will discuss the different elements of cybersecurity and assess the extent to which India has developed a comprehensive National Cyber Security Strategy to address these challenges.

Different Elements of Cybersecurity:

• Network Security: Network security focuses on protecting computer networks from unauthorized access, intrusion, and data breaches. It includes measures like firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and secure network protocols.

• Data Security: Data security involves safeguarding sensitive and confidential information from unauthorized access, loss, or modification. Encryption, access controls, and regular data backups are vital components of data security.

• Endpoint Security: Endpoint security focuses on securing individual devices such as computers, laptops, and mobile devices. It includes measures like antivirus software, secure configurations, and regular software updates.

• Application Security: Application security aims to prevent vulnerabilities and protect software applications from exploitation. This involves secure coding practices, vulnerability assessments, and application security testing.

• Incident Response: Incident response involves developing strategies and procedures to detect, respond to, and recover from cybersecurity incidents effectively. This includes incident reporting, incident handling, and incident recovery processes.

Challenges in Cybersecurity and India's National Cyber Security Strategy:

• Sophisticated Cyber Attacks: India faces sophisticated cyber attacks from state-sponsored actors, hacktivists, and cybercriminals, posing significant challenges to cybersecurity.

• Digital Infrastructure Protection: India's digital infrastructure, including critical sectors like banking, healthcare, and government services, requires robust protection against cyber threats.

• Capacity Building and Skill Shortage: There is a need to enhance cybersecurity awareness, training, and skill development to address the shortage of cybersecurity professionals in India.

• International Cooperation: Cybersecurity is a global issue, requiring international cooperation to address cross-border cyber threats effectively.

Extent of India's Comprehensive National Cyber Security Strategy:

• Legal Framework: India has established a legal framework for cybersecurity, including the Information Technology Act, 2000, and the establishment of the National Cyber Security Coordinator's office. These provide a foundation for addressing cyber threats and enforcing cybersecurity measures.

• National Cyber Security Policy: In 2013, India launched its National Cyber Security Policy, which focuses on various aspects of cybersecurity, including secure infrastructure, capacity building, and international cooperation.

• CERT-In: The Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) plays a crucial role in responding to cybersecurity incidents, issuing alerts, and promoting cybersecurity best practices.

• Public-Private Partnership: India emphasizes public-private partnerships to enhance cybersecurity capabilities and collaboration between government agencies, industry stakeholders, and academia.

• International Engagement: India actively engages in international forums and initiatives to address cybersecurity challenges and promote cooperation in tackling cyber threats.

Examples and Data Reports:

• The National Crime Records Bureau reported a significant increase in cybercrime cases in India, with a 63% rise in 2020 compared to the previous year.

• The Indian government launched the Cyber Swachhta Kendra initiative to provide free tools and security solutions to individuals and organizations for cleaning and securing their computer systems from malware infections.


Cybersecurity encompasses various elements, including network security, data security, endpoint security, application security, and incident response. India has made significant strides in developing a comprehensive National Cyber Security Strategy, including a legal framework, national policies, and public-private partnerships. However, challenges remain, such as sophisticated cyber threats, the protection of digital infrastructure, capacity building, and international cooperation. It is essential for India to continue investing in cybersecurity measures, strengthening its legal and policy frameworks, enhancing cybersecurity skills and awareness, and fostering international collaborations to ensure a robust and resilient cybersecurity landscape.

Q20. Naxalism is a social, economic and developmental issue manifesting violent internal security threat. In this context, discuss the emerging issues and suggest a multilayered strategy to tackle the menace of Naxalism (Answer in 250 words) 15 mark


Naxalism, also known as Maoism or Left-wing extremism, poses a significant social, economic, and developmental challenge in certain regions of India. It manifests as a violent internal security threat, fueled by grievances related to land distribution, social inequality, and inadequate access to basic services. To tackle the menace of Naxalism effectively, it is crucial to understand the emerging issues surrounding this problem and develop a multilayered strategy. This essay will discuss the emerging issues related to Naxalism and propose a multilayered strategy to address this complex challenge.

Emerging Issues in Naxalism:

• Geographical Expansion: Naxalism has expanded its presence across several states, primarily in the "Red Corridor" regions, posing challenges to internal security and governance.

• Infiltration of Radical Ideologies: There is a growing concern regarding the infiltration of radical ideologies and international linkages that may provide support and resources to Naxal groups.

• Financing and Arms Procurement: Naxal groups resort to illicit activities, such as extortion, illegal mining, and arms smuggling, to finance their operations and procure weapons, exacerbating the security challenge.

• Exploitation of Marginalized Communities: Naxal groups exploit the grievances of marginalized communities by capitalizing on their socio-economic disparities and inadequate access to basic services.

Multilayered Strategy to Tackle Naxalism:

Enhancing Security Measures:

• Strengthening intelligence gathering and sharing among security agencies to disrupt Naxal networks and prevent attacks.

• Deploying well-trained and adequately equipped security forces to effectively counter Naxal violence and maintain law and order.

• Conducting joint operations and coordination between central and state security forces to enhance effectiveness and minimize gaps.

Addressing Socio-economic Disparities:

• Implementing inclusive and equitable development programs to address the root causes of Naxalism, such as land distribution, poverty, unemployment, and lack of basic services.

• Promoting socio-economic empowerment through skill development, livelihood opportunities, and access to education, healthcare, and infrastructure in Naxal-affected areas.

Community Engagement and Confidence-building Measures:

• Encouraging community participation and involving local stakeholders in decision-making processes to foster trust, address grievances, and prevent the recruitment of vulnerable individuals by Naxal groups.

• Conducting awareness campaigns to educate communities about the negative impacts of Naxal violence and the benefits of peaceful and democratic means for addressing grievances.

Legal and Judicial Reforms:

• Strengthening the legal framework to expedite the judicial process, ensuring swift trials and convictions of Naxal cadres involved in violence and criminal activities.

• Promoting the use of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms to address land disputes and grievances in an efficient and timely manner.

Examples and Data Reports:

• The Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, releases an annual report on Left-wing extremism, providing insights into the spread, activities, and trends of Naxalism in affected states.

• The "Samadhan" strategy implemented by the Government of Chhattisgarh has seen positive results in addressing Naxalism through a comprehensive approach, focusing on security, development, and strengthening of local governance.


Naxalism presents a complex social, economic, and developmental challenge with significant internal security implications. To tackle this menace effectively, a multilayered strategy is required that encompasses security measures, socio-economic development, community engagement, and legal reforms. By enhancing security measures, addressing socio- economic disparities, engaging communities, and implementing legal and judicial reforms, India can make substantial progress in countering Naxalism. It is crucial for the government, security forces, and civil society to work in collaboration, fostering an environment of peace, inclusivity, and equitable development to address the root causes and challenges posed by Naxalism.