Model question | 25-07-2023
Model question | 25-07-2023
GS 3 Paper CSE 2022
Q17. Discuss global warming and mention its effects on global climate. Explain the control measures to bring down the level of greenhouse gases which cause global warming, in the light of Kyoto Protocol, 1997. (Answer in 250 words) 15 mark
Global warming refers to the long-term increase in the Earth's average surface temperature due to the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is primarily caused by human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. Global warming has significant effects on the global climate, including rising temperatures, extreme weather events, and sea-level rise.
Effects of Global Warming on Global Climate:
• Rising Temperatures: Global warming leads to an increase in average temperatures worldwide, causing heatwaves, heat stress on ecosystems, and the melting of glaciers and ice caps.
• Extreme Weather Events: The frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, droughts, and floods, are exacerbated by global warming, posing risks to human lives, infrastructure, and agriculture.
• Sea-Level Rise: As temperatures rise, glaciers and polar ice caps melt, contributing to the rise in sea levels. This threatens coastal regions, causing flooding, erosion, and salinization of freshwater sources.
• Ecosystem Disruption: Global warming disrupts ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, species migration patterns, and the balance of ecosystems. It poses risks to both terrestrial and marine habitats, leading to species extinction and ecosystem degradation.
Control Measures to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Kyoto Protocol and its Control Measures:
• Binding Emission Reduction Targets: The Kyoto Protocol required industrialized countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions collectively by an average of 5.2% below 1990 levels during the period 2008-2012.
• Carbon Market Mechanisms: The Kyoto Protocol introduced market-based mechanisms, such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI), which allowed countries to earn credits for emission reductions achieved in other countries.
• Technology Transfer and Financial Support: The Kyoto Protocol emphasized the need for technology transfer and financial support from developed to developing countries to assist them in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to the impacts of climate change.
Examples and Facts:
• According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the global average surface temperature has increased by about 1.1 degrees Celsius since the pre-industrial era.
• The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reported that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reached a record high of 412.5 parts per million (ppm) in 2020.
• The Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21) stated that renewable energy accounted for 29.7% of global electricity production in 2020, showing progress in the transition to cleaner energy sources.
Global warming has far-reaching effects on the global climate, including rising temperatures, extreme weather events, sea-level rise, and ecosystem disruption. To mitigate global warming, control measures are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These measures involve transitioning to renewable energy, improving energy efficiency, promoting afforestation and reforestation, fostering international cooperation through agreements like the Kyoto Protocol, and supporting technology development and transfer. By implementing these control measures, we can work towards stabilizing the climate, minimizing the impacts of global warming, and fostering a sustainable and resilient future for generations to come.
Q18. Explain the causes and effects of coastal erosion in India. What are the available coastal management techniques for combating the hazard? (Answer in 250 words) 15 mark
Coastal erosion, the gradual wearing away of coastal land and beaches, is a significant hazard in India. It is primarily caused by natural processes, human activities, and climate change. Coastal erosion poses various detrimental effects, including loss of land, habitat degradation, and threats to human settlements.
Causes of Coastal Erosion in India:
• Wave Action and Tidal Forces: Strong waves and tidal forces, especially during monsoon seasons and cyclonic events, contribute to the erosion of coastal land and beaches.
• Sea-Level Rise: Rising sea levels, attributed to climate change, intensify coastal erosion by increasing wave energy and inundating vulnerable areas, leading to land loss.
• Deforestation and Sand Mining: Deforestation of coastal vegetation and excessive sand mining disrupt natural sediment flow, depriving beaches of vital sand resources and exacerbating erosion.
• Coastal Construction and Infrastructure: Improperly planned coastal development, including the construction of ports, harbors, and seawalls, can disrupt natural sediment transport, resulting in erosion in adjacent areas.
Effects of Coastal Erosion in India:
• Land Loss and Coastal Retreat: Coastal erosion leads to the loss of valuable land, impacting human settlements, agricultural areas, and infrastructure along the coastline.
• Habitat Degradation: Erosion affects coastal habitats, such as mangroves, coral reefs, and dunes, which provide critical ecosystems services, including shoreline protection and biodiversity conservation.
• Threats to Human Settlements: Coastal erosion poses risks to human settlements, causing displacement, damage to infrastructure, and loss of livelihoods for coastal communities.
• Saltwater Intrusion: Erosion can lead to the intrusion of saline water into freshwater sources, affecting agriculture and potable water availability in coastal areas.
Coastal Management Techniques to Combat Coastal Erosion:
• Beach Nourishment: Beach nourishment involves adding sediment to eroded beaches to restore their width and height. This technique replenishes sand and promotes natural beach processes.
• Dune Restoration: Dune restoration involves the planting of vegetation to stabilize sand dunes, preventing erosion and acting as natural barriers against storm surges and high tides.
• Coastal Vegetation Conservation: Protecting and restoring coastal vegetation, including mangroves and coastal forests, helps stabilize sediments, reduce wave energy, and provide habitat for marine life.
• Seawalls and Revetments: Constructing seawalls and revetments can provide temporary protection against erosion. However, these structures can also cause adverse effects, such as sediment starvation and increased erosion in adjacent areas.
• Managed Retreat: In areas heavily impacted by erosion, managed retreat involves relocating human settlements away from vulnerable coastlines, allowing natural coastal processes to occur without compromising human safety.
Examples and Data Reports:
• The Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification of 2011 by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change in India aims to regulate coastal development activities and protect sensitive coastal ecosystems.
• The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve in Tamil Nadu, India, has implemented measures to conserve and restore coral reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, promoting sustainable coastal management.
Coastal erosion in India is a significant hazard caused by natural processes, human activities, and climate change. Its effects include land loss, habitat degradation, and threats to human settlements. To combat coastal erosion, various management techniques are available, such as beach nourishment, dune restoration, coastal vegetation conservation, and strategic infrastructure planning. It is crucial to implement these techniques while considering the ecological balance and the long-term sustainability of coastal areas. By adopting appropriate coastal management strategies, India can mitigate the adverse impacts of coastal erosion, protect vulnerable ecosystems, and ensure the resilience of coastal communities.