Discuss about the “ Sub-tropical Broad-leaf Hill forests “ and “Dry Forests” of Assam .
Ans :- According to the “Indian State of Forest Report (ISFR)-2019” the Forest Cover in the State is 28,326.51 sq. km which is 36.11 % of the state's geographical area. Moreover , forest cover in the state has increased by 221.51 sq. km as compared to the previous assessment reported in ISFR -2017.
Following are the description of Sub-tropical Broad-leaf Hill forests “ and “Dry Forests” of Assam :-
1. “ Sub-tropical Broad-leaf Hill forests “ :-
The “Sub-tropical Broad leaf Hill” forests of Assam is confined to the hill districts of Karbi Anglong , West Karbi-Anglong and Dima Hasao . These forests receives a mean annual rainfall of about 75 cm to 125 cm with an average annual temperature of about 18°-21°C. “Sub-tropical Broad leaf Hill” are mainly distributed in Eastern Himalayas to the east of 88°E longitude at altitudes varying from 1000m to 2000m.The commonly found species in these forests are evergreen oaks, chestnuts, ash, beech, sals and pines. It is a “stunted rain-forest” and is not so luxuriant as the true tropical evergreen forests .
2. “Dry Forests” :-
Bordering Moist Deciduous Forests in “rain shadow areas” or low rainfall regions of the state are found forests which has been referred to as “Dry Forests” . This type of forests are encountered in the Lumding (Hojai) , Langting (Dima Hasao), Mailongdisa Reserve Forests ( Dima Hasao) of the state. A typical example is the Umananda Island in the middle of Brahmaputra river North of Guwahati. Important species include, Aegle marmelos(Bel), Albizia species(Siris), Cassia fistula(Sonaru), Bombax (Simul), Alstonia scholaris(Satiana), Ficus species(Bor), Litsea species(Loban, Bagnola, Mezankori, Honwalu,Digloti) Melia azedarach(Neem), Moringa oleifera(Sajana), Orosylum indicum(Bhatgila), Mallotus species(Senduri), Terminalia species(Hilikha,Bhomora) etc.
Conclusion :- The climatic conditions cause prevalence of hot and highly humid weather in this part of country and coupled with heterogenic physiography make possible luxuriant growth of a number of plant communities imparting Assam a distinct identity phyto-geographically, many a species are endemic to this region and it is also the center of origin for commercially important plants including Banana, Citrus, Mango, Zizyphus, and Tea. The array of floristic richness has prompted many a scholars to describe Assam as the “Biological Gateway” of North East.