Daily Current Affairs (MCQ's) | 26-09-2022

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ's) | 26-09-2022

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ's) | 26-09-2022

Q1. Consider the following statements

  1. ‘Swapnil Tripathi’ judgment- SC had cleared the deck for live streaming of cases of national and constitutional importance.
  2. ‘Bachan Singh v State of Punjab’- Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of capital punishment on the condition that the punishment will be awarded in the “rarest of the rare” cases.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (c)

Explanation:

In the ‘Swapnil Tripathi’ judgment, in September 2018, the SC had cleared the deck for live streaming of cases of national and constitutional importance. In 1980, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of capital punishment in ‘Bachan Singh v State of Punjab’ on the condition that the punishment will be awarded in the “rarest of the rare” cases. Crucially, the ruling also stressed that a separate sentencing hearing would be held, where a judge would be persuaded on why the death sentence need not be awarded.

 

Q2. Which of the following statements is/are true with respect to Project 39A often seen in news?

  1. It is a criminal reforms advocacy group in the National Law University of Delhi
  2. It aims to trigger new conversations specifically only on the issue of death penalty.
  3. It is inspired by Article 39-A of the Indian Constitution.

Select the correct answer from codes given below

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer (c)

Explanation:

Project 39A

Project 39A has released a study analysing trial court death penalty judgements from Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Delhi during the period 2000-15.

Pre-Connect

  • Project 39A is inspired by Article 39-A of the Indian Constitution, a provision that furthers the intertwined values of equal justice and equal opportunity by removing economic and social barriers
  • These are constitutional values of immense importance given the manner in which multiple disparities intersect to exclude vast sections of our society from effectively assessing justice.
  • Using empirical research to re-examine practices and policies in the criminal justice system, Project 39A aims to trigger new conversations on legal aid, torture, DNA forensics, mental health in prisons, and the death penalty.
  • Under this project the National Law University, Delhi is committed to ensuring that theengagement with the criminal justice system is based on rigorous empirical work.
  • The Legal Services Authorities Act (1987) has established a nation- wide network to provide free and competent legal aid to the poor and to organise Lok Adalat for promoting equal justice.
  • Lok Adalat is a statutory forum for conciliatory settlement of legal It has been given the status of a civil court. Its awards are enforceable, binding on the parties and final as no appeal lies before any court against them.

Analytica

  • It is an oft-repeated truth that much of law-making in India lacks any real empirical basis and this is equally true for law and policy making in the criminal justice system.
  • The dismal state and sometimes the absence of record-keeping in the police, prisons and courts along with multiple barriers to accessing records, data complicates criminal justice research in India.
  • It is important that National Law University, Delhi utilise the resources, expertise and access to networks available to overcome these barriers and take these difficult conversations forward
  • Issues involving the criminal justice system need to be effectively communicated to audiences far beyond lawyers, judges and the bureaucracy.
  • It is critical that the project can clearly convey that everyone has a stake in the health of the criminal justice system and that its fault lines must concern all.
  • Researching the criminal justice system often forces the researchers to confront harsh individual and systemic realities and issues of legal representation and intervention also lie at the core of Project 39A’s mandate.
  • Being acutely aware that credible research rides on its independence, robust ethical frameworks guide the separation of research and representation efforts.

Conclusion

India’s per capita expenditure on free legal aid – which 80% of the population is eligible for – was just 75 paise per annum in the year 2017- 2018. This was revealed in a new study on the justice delivery system in India. Moreover, there isn’t a single state which has used the full budget allocated by the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA).The main reason behind it is the unawareness of the masses.

Q3. Golden langurs are one of the world’s most endangered primates. The long-term survival of populations depends on the genetic exchange. However, much of the golden langur population occurs in fragmented forests.

The small, isolated populations are extremely vulnerable. Golden langurs are found in India in

  1. Assam
  2. Andaman islands
  3. Odisha
  4. Goa

Answer (a)

Explanation:

Golden langurs cling to splintered forests and fringe villages in Assam

  1. Endemic to northeast India and Bhutan, golden langurs are one of the world’s most endangered In Assam, most of their population is outside protected areas.
  2. The long-term survival of populations depends on the genetic However, much of the golden langur population occurs in fragmented forests. The small, isolated populations are extremely vulnerable.
  3. The crash in numbers and decline of habitat are linked to political unrest and ethnic conflicts in western Assam that began in the 1980s. Currently, roadkills, electrocution by low-slung live wires, occasional poaching, and attacks by dogs are also imperilling the monkeys.
  4. Conservationists and primatologists have pinned hope on legal protection for the habitat of the golden langur and scaling up community-led conservation in Assam to bolster the langur’s populations, building on previous successes of catalysing community participation.
  1. Northeast India, a biodiversity hotspot, is home to 12 of India’s 26 primate species and is witnessing fast-tracked infrastructure Golden langurs have undoubtedly drawn the attention of the public and lawmakers, yet they are still overshadowed by big charismatic species such as the tiger and elephant.

 

Q4. Consider the following statements about the Sundarbans National Park

  1. The Sundarbans comprises both forest land and wetlands in the form of tidal rivers, creeks, canals and vast estuarine mouths of the river
  2. Most of the Sundarbans mangrove area is located in India and only a small part is in Bangladesh
  3. The mangrove habitat supports the single largest population of tigers in the world which have adapted to an almost amphibious life

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer (c)

Explanation:

Sundarbans National Park

The Sundarbans covers 10,000 km2 of land and water (more than half of it in India, the rest in Bangladesh) in the Ganges delta. It contains the world's largest area of mangrove forests. A number of rare or endangered species live in the park, including tigers, aquatic mammals, birds and reptiles.

The Sundarbans contain the world's largest mangrove forests and one of the most biologically productive of all-natural ecosystems. Located at the mouth of the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers between India and Bangladesh, its forest and waterways support a wide range of fauna including a number of species threatened with extinction. The mangrove habitat supports the single largest population of tigers in the world which have adapted to an almost amphibious life, being capable of swimming for long distances and feeding on fish, crab and water monitor lizards. They are also renowned for being “man-eaters”, most probably due to their relatively high frequency of encounters with local people.

The islands are also of great economic importance as a storm barrier, shore stabiliser, nutrient and sediment trap, a source of timber and natural resources, and support a wide variety of aquatic, benthic and terrestrial organisms. They are an excellent example of the ecological processes of monsoon rain flooding, delta formation, tidal influence and plant colonisation. Covering 133,010 ha, the area is estimated to comprise about 55% forest land and 45% wetlands in the form of tidal rivers, creeks, canals and vast estuarine mouths of the river. About 66% of the entire mangrove forest area is estimated to occur in Bangladesh, with the remaining 34% in India.

Q5. Snow Leopards are found in Central Asia and South Asia. Being a predator like a tiger, the snow leopard is the apex predator of the ecological pyramid. There are around 7000 snow leopards worldwide. In India, they are between 500 to 700 found in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh states.

Recently India established its first snow leopard conservation centre in

  1. Jammu and Kashmir
  2. Himachal Pradesh
  3. Sikkim
  4. Uttarakhand

Answer (d)

Explanation:

Snow Leopards are found in Central Asia and South Asia. Being a predator like a tiger, the snow leopard is the apex predator of the ecological pyramid. There are around 7000 snow leopards worldwide. In India, they are between 500 to 700 found in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh states. Snow Leopard has suffered mainly on account of its relatively smaller population (less number of reproducing adults) and also because of man-animal conflict. It is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Secure Himalaya

The Government of India and the United Nations Development Programme, with support from the Global Environment Facility, are implementing a new programme in the high altitude Himalayas entitled “SECURE Himalayas - Securing livelihoods, conservation, sustainable use and restoration of high range Himalayan ecosystems”, to ensure the conservation of locally and globally significant biodiversity, land and forest resources in the high Himalayan ecosystem, while enhancing the lives and livelihoods of local communities.

The project looks into the conservation of snow leopards and other endangered species and their habitats, found in the Himalayas. This project was started in 2017. It is funded by the Global Environment Facility-United Nations Development Programme.

India’s first snow leopard conservation centre:

India’s first snow leopard conservation centre will be established in Uttarakhand. The conservation centre will be built by the Uttarakhand forest department along with United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Uttarkashi forests as part of its six-year-long project, SECURE Himalayas.

Q6. Which of the following is/are correctly matched?

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer (d)

Explanation:

Indian Rhino Vision 2020

Launched in 2005, the Indian Rhino Vision 2020 is an ambitious effort to attain a wild population of at least 3,000 greater one-horned rhinos spread over seven protected areas in the Indian state of Assam by the year 2020.

The Problem

Greater one-horned, or Indian, rhinoceros once roamed from Pakistan to the Indo-Burmese border, and in parts of Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan. But by the beginning of the 20th century, hunting and habitat loss had reduced the species to fewer than 200 individuals in northern India and Nepal. Thanks to strict protection implemented by Indian and Nepalese authorities, the population has rebounded to more than 3,600 today.

,

Despite these successes, however, Indian rhinos are still threatened by poaching and habitat loss. Kaziranga National Park in Assam, India, holds about two-thirds of the world population. This is worrisome for two reasons – the park may have reached its carrying capacity and might not be able to support any more rhinos; and the entire species’ population could be decimated by a disease outbreak, natural disaster, or other acute threat.

Irrawaddy Dolphin

The dolphin population in Odisha has nearly doubled in a year, the state forest department claimed in April 2021. The state’s Chilika lake is known for its Irrawaddy dolphins, drawing in a large number of tourists every year.

Officials said they counted 188 dolphins, including 162 Irrawaddy dolphins and 26 bottlenose dolphins, in Chilika Lake in 2021. They sighted 163 dolphins — 146 Irrawaddy and 17 bottlenose — in the lake in 2020. Irrawaddy dolphins are the flagship species inhabiting the lake. The species is spotted only in Asia — from Chilika to Indonesia.

Sangai Deer

The brow-antlered deer or the dancing deer is found in its natural habitat only at Keibul Lamjao National Park over the floating biomass locally called "phumdi" in the southeastern part of Loktak Lake