Daily Current Affairs (MCQ's) | 23-09-2022

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ's) | 23-09-2022

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ's) | 23-09-2022

Q1. Which of the following statements is correct about the Gross National Product (GNP)?

  1. The value of goods and services produced within a country's borders, by citizens and non-citizens
  2. The value of goods and services produced only by a country's citizens but both domestically and abroad
  3. GNP is the most commonly used by global economies to compare their economies with other economies
  4. GNP limits its interpretation of the economy to the geographical borders of the country

Answer (b)

Explanation:

Gross domestic product (GDP) and gross national product (GNP) are both widely used measures of a country's aggregate economic output. GDP measures the value of goods and services produced within a country's borders, by citizens and non-citizens alike. GNP measures the value of goods and services produced by only a country's citizens but both domestically and abroad. GDP is the most commonly used by global economies. The United States abandoned the use of GNP in 1991, adopting GDP as its measure to compare itself with other economies.

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the value of a nation's finished domestic goods and services during a specific time period. A related but different metric, the gross national product (GNP), is the value of all finished goods and services owned by a country's residents over a period of time.

Both GDP and GNP are two of the most commonly used measures of a country's economy, both of which represent the total market value of all goods and services produced over a defined period.

There are differences between how each one defines the scope of the economy. While GDP limits its interpretation of the economy to the geographical borders of the country, GNP extends it to include the net overseas economic activities performed by its nationals.

Q2. Consider the following statements about the Planetary pressure- adjusted Human Development Index (HDI)

  1. The purpose of the planetary pressure adjusted HDI is to communicate to the larger society the risk involved in continuing with existing practices in our resource use and environmental management, and
  2. It will highlight the retarding effect that environmental stress can perpetuate on development
  3. It involves carbon emission per capita and material footprint per capita in the calculation of adjusted Human Development Index (HDI)

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer (d)

Explanation:

Planetary pressure-adjusted Human Development Index (HDI)

  1. The 2020 Human Development Report of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), titled “The Next Frontier – Human Development and the Anthropocene” proposed a planetary pressure-adjusted Human Development Index (HDI).
  2. Ever since the UNDP took up the computation of the HDI driven by the vision of Mahbub ul Haq and articulated by Amartya Sen in 1990, there have been adjustments such as inequality-adjusted HDI.
  3. Besides, there was the computation of several other indices such as the Gender Development Index, Gender Inequality Index, and Multidimensional Poverty Index to flag the issues that warranted the attention of policymakers.

Human-induced change

  1. The environment is one such issue now considered to be an essential component to be factored in to measure human development.
  2. The concept of the planetary boundary was to highlight that human- induced environmental change can irrevocably destabilise the long- term dynamics of the earth system, thereby disrupting the life- supporting system of the planet.
  3. Both global and local evidence indicate that biodiversity loss, climate change, land system/land-use change, disruption of biogeochemical cycles, and scarcity of freshwater availability are a threat and increase the vulnerability of society.
  4. The purpose of the planetary pressure adjusted HDI, or PHDI, is to communicate to the larger society the risk involved in continuing with existing practices in our resource use and environmental management, and the retarding effect that environmental stress can perpetuate on development.

Impact on country rankings

  1. When planetary pressure is adjusted, the world average of HDI in 2019 came down from 737 to 0.683. This adjustment has been worked out by factoring in per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emission (production), and per capita material footprint.
  2. The average per capita global CO2 emission (production) is 6 tonnes and the per capita material footprint is 12.3 tonnes. The global ranking of several countries was altered, in a positive and negative sense, with adjustment of planetary pressure.
  3. Among 66 very high human development countries, 30 countries recorded a fall in rank values ranging from minus 1 for Germany and Montenegro to minus 131 for Luxembourg.
  4. It succinctly brings out the nature of planetary pressure generated by the developed countries and indirectly indicates their responsibility in combating the situation.

Indian Case:

  1. In the case of India, the PHDI is 0.626 against an HDI of 0.645 with an average per capita CO2 emission (production) and material footprints of 0 tonnes and 4.6 tonnes, respectively.
  2. India gained in global rankings by eight points (131st rank under HDI and 123rd rank under PHDI), and its per capita carbon emission (production) and material footprint are well below the global average.

 

Q3. Consider the following statements about the Conservation Assured

|Tiger Standards (CA|TS) accreditation

  1. Only tiger reserves in India have such accreditation so far across the world
  2. CA|TS was   launched    by   the   global    coalition    of   Tiger   Range Countries (TRCs)
  3. CA|TS is an important part of Tx2, the global goal to double wild tiger numbers by the year 2022

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer (d)

Explanation:

The Conservation Assured |Tiger Standards (CA|TS) accreditation has been already awarded to 14 tiger reserves in India (Manas, Kaziranga, Orang, Satpura, Pench, Kanha, Panna, Valmiki, Dudhwa, Parambikulam, Mudumalai, Bandipur, Anamalai and Sundarbans).

CA|TS is a globally accepted conservation tool that sets best practices and standards to manage tigers and encourages assessments to benchmark progress. CA|TS is a set of criteria that allows tiger sites to check if their management will lead to successful tiger conservation as per international standards. Other than India, only one tiger reserve each in Russia and Nepal, and two in Bhutan have the CA|TS status.

CA|TS was developed by tiger and protected area experts. Officially launched in 2013 by the global coalition of Tiger Range Countries (TRCs), CA|TS is an important part of Tx2, the global goal to double wild tiger numbers by the year 2022.

 

 

Q4. Which of the following are Tiger Range Countries (TRC)?

  1. Russia
  2. Bhutan
  3. China

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer (d)

Explanation:

The 12 TRCs other than India are

  1. Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal in South Asia
  2. Myanmar, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, Laos, and Malaysia in Southeast Asia
  3. China and Russia (Asia)

 

Q5. Consider the following statements

  1. The Titanosaurus indicus (meaning "Titanic Indian lizard") was the first-ever dinosaur fossil found in India
  2. Balasinor Dinosaur Museum is situated in the state of Gujarat

Which of the above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (c)

Explanation:

Evolutionary puzzles

In spite of this, over the years, major paleontological finds from India have helped scientists piece together critical information to debunk old theories and shed new light on how life has evolved over time.

At the heart of many of these discoveries is Ashok Sahni, a pioneering palaeontologist whose grandfather, father and uncle were all in the field. Sahni often uses his own funds to power his expeditions – his personal collection of fossils has filled the shelves of Punjab University's Natural History Museum.

 

In 1982, at a dinosaur site in the blazing heat of the central Indian city of Jabalpur, Sahni remembers covering every inch of ground in search of fossils. When he bent over to tie his shoelaces, right there in front of him were four or five spherical structures, measuring 16-20cm in length. "These were very weathered, round, roughly of equal shape. I was stunned. Could they be dinosaur eggs?"

Indeed, they were the eggs of the Titanosaurus indicus, a large herbivorous dinosaur from the Cretaceous Period. It was the first time a clutch of dinosaur eggs had been discovered in India. Today, nearly 40 years later, nesting sites of dinosaurs have been found all over the country.

In August 2003, Sahni shot to global fame after 20 years of excavating, identifying and piecing together the bones of India's newest species of carnivorous dinosaur, Rajasaurus narmadensis, which is thought to have been 30ft (9.14m) long.

Balasinor Dinosaur Museum

In the 1980s Paleontologists accidentally came across the fossil remains and bones in the village of Rayioli in Balasinor. Since then, the place has been flooded with researchers and a number of excavations have taken place in the area the findings of which revealed the fact that there were more than 13 species of dinosaurs that thrived around 65 million years ago. The fossil park here contains life-sized statues of those giant creatures and further excavations have found that a squat, thick-legged, heavy-bodied carnivorous dinosaur with a crested horn, Rajasaurus Narmandensis, King of Narmada, (the first half of the name comes from Raja or King due to the crested horn and the second half of the name originates due to its geographical location which was near the river Narmada). This creature belonged to the carnivore family of Tyrannosaurus Rex.

 

The Titanosaurus indicus

Even before the word dinosaur was coined, we know that the earliest fossils were recorded in the UK in 1824 – the Megalosaurus was found in Oxfordshire and dated back to the Middle Jurassic period (around 174 to 164 million years ago). However, a lesser-known fact is that the discovery of the first dinosaur bones from India came hot on the heels of this.

In 1828, just four years later, W H Sleeman found the first two fossils of what would eventually be called the Titanosaurus indicus (meaning "Titanic Indian lizard") in Jabalpur Central India. They passed through many hands until a British man sent them to England along with thousands of other fossils that were packed away in chests and loaded onto ships.

 

Q6. The vulnerable eastern swamp deer, extinct elsewhere in South Asia, could be seen in

  1. Desert National Park
  2. Kaziranga National Park
  3. Silent ValleyNational Park
  4. Madhav National Park

Answer (b)

Explanation:

The population of the vulnerable eastern swamp deer, extinct elsewhere in South Asia, has dipped in the Kaziranga National Park and Tiger Reserve.

Officials attributed the decrease from 907 individuals in 2018 to 868 during the Eastern Swamp Deer Estimation on January 10 and 11 to two high floods in 2019 and 2020.