Daily Current Affairs (MCQ's) | 20-01-2023

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ's) | 20-01-2023

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ's) | 20-01-2023

Q1. Consider the following statements about the the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) report for 2022

1. This nationwide school survey that covers all rural districts in the country generates estimates for schooling and basic learning for every State in India.

2. After pandemic all-India rural enrolment figure for the age group 6- 14 years has declined

3. There is large scale shift to private schools post pandemic Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 and 3 only

b. 1 only

c. 2 and 3 only

d. 1, 2 and 3

Answer (b)

Explanation:

Flip the page to the chapter on middle schoolchildren:

• After a gap of four years, the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) report for 2022 was recently released. This nationwide household survey that covers all rural districts in the country generates estimates for schooling and basic learning for every State in India.

• Data from 2018 and 2022 can be compared with longer run trends over the last decade to see how the COVID-19 years have impacted India.

NIPUN Bharat:

• The National Education Policy 2020 gives high priority to the acquisition of foundational literacy and numeracy skills especially for children in early grades.

• “NIPUN Bharat” (where NIPUN is National Initiative for Proficiency in Reading with Understanding and Numeracy) the government’s flagship programme designed to translate policy into practice, is beginning to have traction in many States.

A shift back to government school:

• In 2018, the all-India rural enrolment figure for the age group 6-14 years was 97.2%. In ASER 2022 data, this is now 98.4%. The rise has been accompanied by a significant shift away from private schools to government schools.

• Several factors may be at play — decrease in family income, permanent closures of low-cost private schools, and the efforts of many State governments to provide services even when schools were closed such as mid-day meal rations, teaching-learning materials shared remotely, worksheet and textbook distribution.

Implications of higher enrollment:

• With more and more students going through the middle school pipeline and attending secondary schools, there is increased competition for post-secondary opportunities.

• Board examinations continue to perform a gatekeeping function. Acute examination stress, grade inflation in school-leaving examinations, difficulties of gaining admission into college, and lack of appropriate jobs for many school leavers are all consequences of high enrolment and completion rates.

Q2. The Parasnath Hills and Marang Buru are venerated places of worship situated in the state of

a. Bihar

b. Madhya Pradesh

c. Jharkhand

d. Gujarat

Answer (c)

Explanation:

On the Parasnath trail, resisting Adivasi erasure:

• In Giridih, Jharkhand, the Parasnath Hills are the site of a conflict between the Jains and Adivasis.

• The Parasnath Hills are seeing Jain-Santhal conflict, with each side claiming it as their own. At the core of the discord is their differing belief systems, the give and take of community living waning, and traditions gradually hardening into opposing positions.

Marang Buru and Shikharji:

• During the full moon of the Baisakh month (in May), Adivasis from the Santhal community in Hazaribagh, erstwhile Manbhum, and the larger Santhal Pargana areas in Jharkhand, gather at the base of Marang Buru or the hill deity.

• The annual custom, dating back generations, begins with a night-long hunt by the Santhal men in the forested hills along the eastern side of the Chota Nagpur Plateau. It culminates in a two-day tribal session to discuss community problems and resolutions.

• Marang Buru, where the ritual is conducted, is located on the slopes of the Parasnath Hills, in present-day Jharkhand’s Giridih district, also home to Sammed Shikharji, its highest peak at 1,350 metres, and one of the holiest pilgrimage sites of the Jain community. Here, followers believe 20 of the 24 Tirthankaras (enlightened beings) attained nirvana.

• The pilgrimage takes them through the hills, including the site from where the Santhals’ sacred hunt begins. Jain pilgrims are bound by their scripture not to hurt any living creature. There are no lights on the hill, as these attract insects, which the Jains are then in danger of stepping on.

Q3. Recently a group of Indian researchers found rare cases of fossilised dinosaur eggs — an egg within an egg — among 256 newly discovered eggs from the Narmada Valley. This site is situated in the state of

a. Gujarat

b. Maharashtra

c. Madhya Pradesh

d. Rajasthan

Answer (c)

Explanation:

A group of Indian researchers found rare cases of fossilised dinosaur eggs

— an egg within an egg — among 256 newly discovered eggs from the Narmada Valley. The discovery suggests that Titanosaurs — one of the largest dinosaurs to have roamed the Earth — displayed a notable reproductive trait unique to modern-day birds. The findings of the study are published in the journal PLoS One January 18, 2023.

The unique feature of egg within the egg has not been reported from any other dinosaur or even in other reptiles. The egg has two yolks; this feature can be seen in birds, suggesting they share similar reproductive traits, the expert explained.

The team discovered 92 nesting sites containing 265 fossilised eggs — measuring 15-17 centimetres in diameter — during field investigations in the Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh between 2017 and 2020.

This region falls between the easternmost Lameta exposures at Jabalpur in the upper Narmada Valley (central India) and Balasinor in the west in the lower Narmada Valley (western central India), according to the document.

Q4. Consider the following statements

1. In India, the construction of barrages and dams on rivers has obstructed the movement of hilsa, a migrating fish.

2. India alone produces more than 80% of the world’s hilsa.

Which of the statements given above is/are incorrect?

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (b)

Explanation:

• In India, the construction of barrages and dams on rivers has obstructed the movement of hilsa, a migrating fish.

• Under the Clean Ganga Mission, efforts have been made to conserve and increase the number of hilsa. Some of the experiments include releasing juvenile hilsa and their eggs in upstream of the Ganga river. Incentives are given to those who tag hilsas and provide information about their sighting.

• Bangladesh alone produces more than 80% of the world’s hilsa. India is ranked second. However, India produces only 10% hilsa as compared to Bangladesh and has to depend on the neighbouring country for supply. Experts say that India, Bangladesh and Myanmar will have to make joint efforts for the conservation of hilsa.

• A.K. Sahu, a senior scientist at Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI) in Barrackpore, Kolkata, told Mongabay-India, “Hilsa is a fast-moving migratory fish. Earlier, the fish would migrate up to Prayagraj (formerly Allahabad) in Uttar Pradesh. But, after the construction of the Farakka Barrage (on the Ganga in West Bengal), which began operations in 1975, hilsa migration came to a halt. When they could not migrate, their number went down in India.”

Even at a global level, the highly mobile hilsas are now found only in the narrow region of Bangladesh-India-Myanmar.

Q5. Consider the following statements about the cultural contributions of the Rashtrakutas

1. The Rashtrakutas widely patronised the Sanskrit literature

2. Amoghavarsha I patronised many Jain scholars

3. Amogavarsha’s Kavirajamarga was the first poetic work in Kannada language.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 and 2 only

b. 2 and 3 only

c. 1 and 3 only

d. 1, 2 and 3

Answer (d)

Explanation:

Cultural Contributions :

The Rashtrakutas widely patronised Sanskrit literature. There were many scholars in the Rashtrakuta court. Trivikrama wrote Nalachampu and the Kavirahasya was composed by Halayudha during the reign of Krishna III. Jain literature flourished under the patronage of the Rashtrakutas. Amogavarsha I, who was a Jain, patronised many Jain scholars. His teacher Jinasena composed Parsvabhudaya, a biography of Parsva in verses. Another scholar Gunabhadra wrote the Adipurana, the life stories of various Jain saints. Sakatayana wrote the grammar work called Amogavritti. The great mathematician of this period, Viracharya was the author of Ganitasaram. Kannada literature saw its beginning during the period of the Rashtrakutas. Amogavarsha’s Kavirajamarga was the first poetic work in Kannada language. Pampa was the greatest of the Kannada poets. His famous work was Vikramasenavijaya. Ponna was another famous Kannada poet and he wrote Santipurana.

Q6. Consider the following statements

1. He assumed the title ‘Vatapikonda’

2. He was also known as Mamalla

3. During his reign, Hiuen Tsang visited the Pallava capital Kanchipuram.

Above statements are referring to

a. Narasimhavarman I

b. Mahendravarman I

c. Raja Raja Chola

d. Rajendra I

Answer (a)

Explanation:

Narasimhavarman I (630-668 A.D.) :

Narasimhavarman I was also known as Mamalla, which means ‘great wrestler’. He wanted to avenge the defeat of his father at the hands of Chalukyan ruler Pulakesin II. His victory over Pulakesin II in the Battle of Manimangalam near Kanchi is mentioned in Kuram copper plates. The Pallava army under General Paranjothi pursued the retreating Chalukya army, entered Chalukya territory, captured and destroyed the capital city of Vatapi. Narasimhavarman I assumed the title ‘Vatapikonda’. He regained the lost territory. Another notable achievement of Narasimhavarman I was his naval expedition to Sri Lanka. He restored the throne to his friend and Sri Lankan prince Manavarma. During his reign, Hiuen Tsang visited the Pallava capital Kanchipuram. His description of Kanchi is vivid. He calls it a big and beautiful city, six miles in circumference. It had 100 Buddhist monasteries in which about 10,000 Buddhist monks lived. According to his account the people of Kanchi esteemed great learning and the Ghatika at Kanchi served as a great centre of learning. Narasimhavarman I was the founder of Mamallapuram and the monolithic rathas were erected during his reign.