Daily Current Affairs (MCQ's) | 15-03-2023

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ's) | 15-03-2023

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ's) | 15-03-2023

Q1. Consider the following statements with respect to Employees State Insurance Scheme

1. The ESI Scheme applies to factories and other establishment's wherein 10 or more persons are employed

2. The construction sites are not covered under the scheme

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Answer (a)


Employees State Insurance Scheme

The Employees' State Insurance Scheme is an integrated measure of Social Insurance embodied in the Employees' State Insurance Act and it is designed to accomplish the task of protecting 'employees' as defined in the Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948 against the impact of incidences of sickness, maternity, disablement and death due to employment injury and to provide medical care to insured persons and their families.

The ESI Scheme applies to factories and other establishment's viz. Road Transport, Hotels, Restaurants, Cinemas, Newspaper, Shops, and Educational/Medical Institutions wherein 10 or more persons are employed. However, in some States threshold limit for coverage of establishments is still 20. Employees of the aforesaid categories of factories and establishments, drawing wages upto Rs.15,000/- a month, are entitled to social security cover under the ESI Act. ESI Corporation has also decided to enhance wage ceiling for coverage of employees under the ESI Act from Rs.15,000/- to Rs.21,000/-.

ESI Corporation has extended the benefits of the ESI Scheme to the workers deployed on the construction sites located in the implemented areas under ESI Scheme w.e.f. 1st August, 2015.

The ESI Scheme is financed by contributions from employers and employees. The rate of contribution by employer is 4.75% of the wages payable to employees. The employees' contribution is at the rate of 1.75% of the wages payable to an employee. Employees, earning less than Rs. 137/- a day as daily wages, are exempted from payment of their share of contribution.

Q2. Recently seen in news Kattunayakar tribe mainly resides around

a. Northeast India

b. Western Ghats

c. Eastern Odisha

d. Chota Nagpur plateau

Answer (b)


Far from glamor, the elephant whisperers move on

After the Oscar for best documentary short was announced for The Elephant Whisperers in far away Los Angeles, director Kartiki Gonsalves thanked Bomman and Bellie for sharing their tribal vision, which helped her make the movie — a moment of glory for the Kattunayakar tribe of the Western Ghats and their traditional wisdom.

The documentary revolves around a family that adopts two orphan baby elephants in Tamil Nadu’s Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, and rears them. The two human protagonists of the film, mentioned on the world stage — Mr. Bomman and Ms. Bellie — however, has moved on from the Theppakadu sanctuary.

Q3. Which of the following countries border the Persian gulf?

1. Oman

2. Iraq

3. Yemen

Select the correct answer from codes given below

a. 1 and 2 only

b. 1 and 3 only

c. 3 only

d. 1, 2 and 3

Answer (a)


Q4. Which of the following aptly describes fluorescence?

a. Emission of light from a substance exposed to radiation and persisting as an afterglow after the exciting radiation has been removed

b. Ability of objects to absorb light and re-emit it at a higher wavelength

c. Ability of object to absorbs, reflects or scatter visible light

d. None of the above

Answer (b)


Scientists devise ‘glowscope’ to bring fluorescent microscopy to schools In 2014, a group of scientists at the Stanford University released Foldscope, a handheld microscope made almost entirely out of paper, which takes 30 minutes to put together, and which could capture images of cells. So far, millions of people — especially schoolchildren — around the world have taken images of the microscopic world with Foldscopes, while dozens of scientific studies have been conducted with the help of this instrument. Its cost? ₹400. Foldscope democratised the world’s access to optical microscopy. Now, researchers at the Winona State University, Minnesota, have created a design for a ‘glowscope’, a device that could democratise access to fluorescence microscopy — at least partly so.

What Is Fluorescence Microscopy?

An optical microscope views an object by studying how it absorbs, reflects or scatters visible light. A fluorescence microscope views an object by studying how it re-emits light that it has absorbed, i.e. how it fluoresces. This is its basic principle.

The object is illuminated with light of a specific wavelength. Particles in the object absorb this light and re-emit it at a higher wavelength (i.e. different colour). These particles are called fluorophores; the object is infused with them before being placed under the microscope.

A fluorophore is a molecule with Fluorescence properties. The fluorophore absorbs photons and emits photons of lower energy in return. Fluorophores are chemically diverse. Fluorophores relevant in the life sciences range from small chemical compounds (fluorescein, rhodamine, cyanine and their derivatives) to amino acids (tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine) to Fluorescent fusion proteins (GFP, RFP etc.).Chemical fluorophores are often attached to biomolecules via covalent or tag-specific Protein Labeling procedures, while fluorescent proteins can be genetically fused to the target protein.

Phosphorescence, emission of light from a substance exposed to radiation and persisting as an afterglow after the exciting radiation has been removed. Unlike fluorescence, in which the absorbed light is spontaneously emitted about 10-8 second after excitation, phosphorescence requires additional excitation to produce radiation and may last from about 10-3 second to days or years, depending on the circumstances.

There are versions of fluorescent microscopes with more sophisticated abilities, such as epifluorescence and confocal laser-scanning microscopes.

When the fluorophores fluoresce, a fluorescent microscope can track them as they move inside the object, revealing the object’s internal shape and other characteristics. For example, a fluorophore called the Hoechst stain binds to the DNA and is excited by ultraviolet light. So, a tissue sample collected from a person could be injected with the Hoechst stain and placed under a fluorescent microscope. When the sample is illuminated by ultraviolet light, the stain absorbs the light and re-emits it at a higher wavelength. The microscope will point out where this is happening: in the nuclei of cells, where DNA is located. This way, the nuclei in the tissue can be labeled for further study.

Q5. Consider the following statements with respect to the Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) norms

1. These norms help investors in managing risk in their investments

2. ESG regulation is enforced by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (a)


The Rise Of The ESG Regulations

Over the last decade, regulators and corporations around the world have embraced the idea that businesses should be measured not just on traditional economic metrics such as shareholder return, but also by their environmental impact, commitment to social issues and the soundness of their corporate governance and protection of shareholder rights. While this development is partially due to the belief that companies have a distinct responsibility as corporate citizens, the main driver is the realisation that environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) considerations need to be included by investors in a company’s risk profile in order to accurately assess the enterprise. The evolution of ESG laws and regulations is, however, still at a nascent stage in India, where the focus is often on providing protections regarding the environment or workplace conditions without also incorporating the controls and disclosure that are a hallmark of contemporary ESG regulation.

How ESG Differs From CSR?

India has a robust corporate social responsibility (CSR) policy that mandates that corporations engage in initiatives that contribute to the welfare of society. This mandate was codified into law with the passage of the 2014 and 2021 amendments to the Companies Act of 2013.

The amendments require companies with a net worth of ₹500 crore (approximately $60 million) or a minimum turnover of ₹1,000 crore (approximately $120 million) or a net profit of ₹5 crore (approximately

$6,05,800) in any given financial year spend at least 2% of their net profit over the preceding three years on CSR activities.

The list of qualifying CSR activities is intentionally broad, ranging from supporting the protection of historically important sites to promoting safe drinking water.

ESG regulations, on the other hand, differ in process and impact. The

U.K. Modern Slavery Act, for example, requires companies with business in the U.K. and with annual sales of more than £36 million to publish the efforts they have taken to identify and analyse the risks of human trafficking, child labour and debt bondage in their supply chain; establish internal accountability procedures; evaluate supplier compliance and to train supply chain managers regarding these issues.

Why is ESG relevant in India?

India has long had a number of laws and bodies regarding environmental, social and governance issues, including the Environment Protection Act of 1986, quasi-judicial organisations such as the National Green Tribunal, a range of labour codes andlaws governing employee engagement and corporate governance practices. The penalty for violations can be substantial.

While these laws and bodies provide important environmental and social safeguards, new initiatives in India go further, establishing guidelines that emphasise monitoring, quantification and disclosure, akin to ESG requirements found in other parts of the world.

ESG regulation is enforced by SEBI in India through mandatory Business Responsibility and Sustainability Report (BRSR). The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), responding to the increase in ESG investing and the demand by investors for information on ESG risks, substantially revised the annual Business Responsibility and Sustainability Report (BRSR) required by the 1,000 largest listed companies in India.

SEBI describes the current report format as a “notable departure” from previous disclosure requirements, which are aligned with evolving global standards and place “considerable emphasis on quantifiable metrics” to allow companies to engage meaningfully with stakeholders and to enhance investor decision making. Disclosures range from greenhouse gas emissions to the company’s gender and social diversity.

Further legislation regarding ESG are likely, given the increased emphasis by the Indian government on ESG issues, which can be seen in India’s more active role in global climate forums as well as in specific policy developments, such as the announcement in January by the Reserve Bank of India that it would be auctioning ₹80 billion ($981 million) in green bonds.