Daily Current Affairs (MCQ's) | 06-12-2022
Daily Current Affairs (MCQ's) | 06-12-2022
Q1. Strontium or Fancy Bear, recently seen in news, is
- A cyber-espionage group
- Far off Black hole
- Giant galaxy near milky way
- Quantum commuter developed by Russia
- Strontium, also known as Fancy Bear, Tsar Team, Pawn Storm, Sofacy, Sednit or Advanced Persistent Threat 28 (APT28) group, is a highly active and prolific cyber-espionage group.
- The group is said to be connected to the GRU, the Russian Armed Forces’ main military intelligence wing. The GRU’s unit 26165 is identified as Fancy Bear.
- It is one of the most active APT groups and has been operating since at least the mid-2000s, making it one of the world’s oldest cyber-spy groups.
- It has access to highly sophisticated tools to conduct spy operations and has been attacking targets in the U.S., Europe, Central Asia and West Asia.
Q2. Dugong (Dugong dugon) also called ‘Sea Cow’ is the only existing species of herbivorous mammal that lives exclusively in the sea including in India. Consider the following statements in this regard
- Dugongs occur in the Gulf of Mannar PalkBay, Gulf of Kutch and Andaman and Nicobar islands
- Dugong keep the seagrass ecosystem healthy
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Both 1 and 2
- Neither 1 nor 2
Dugong (Dugong dugon) also called ‘Sea Cow’ is one of the four surviving species in the Order Sirenia and it is the only existing species of herbivorous mammal that lives exclusively in the sea including in India. Dugongs are protected in India and occur in the Gulf of Mannar, PalkBay, Gulf of Kutch and Andaman and Nicobar islands. Once abundant in Indian waters, the Dugong population has now reduced to about 200 individuals and is believed to be continuously declining in its number and range. Dugong conservation is nothing but coastal conservation being a flagship species in its range.
In order to conserve and manage the declining populations of dugong in India, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change under the Government of India constituted a ‘Task Force for Conservation of Dugongs’ to look into the entire gamut of issues related to the conservation of dugongs and implementation of the ‘UNEP/CMS Dugong MoU’ in India and also to facilitate the country to act as the leading nation in the South Asia Sub-region with respect to dugong conservation.
Why India needs its fishers to save dugongs and their seagrass habitat:
- Seagrass habitats can combat climate change by acting as massive carbon sinks by capturing carbon from the atmosphere. They also protect vulnerable coastlines from rising tides.
- Meanwhile, the currently vulnerable dugongs or sea cows graze about 40 kg of seagrass/day and this constant trimming results in regenerating a healthier seagrass ecosystem.
- India is now reaching out to fishers through awareness programmes and incentives to protect both the endangered dugongs and their habitat – the seagrass meadows. The dugong is currently listed as vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
- Dugong (Dugong dugon) is currently the only herbivorous marine mammal on earth that feeds exclusively on seagrass. Dugong leaves the required gaps in between seagrasses that facilitate further growth and makes the seagrass habitats conducive for breeding of fishes that are commercially important for the livelihoods of fishermen.
The way forward:
To further dugong and seagrass conservation, WII proposes that the Coastal Regulation Zone should prohibit trawler fishing within the territorial water i.e. 12 nautical miles from the coast be left exclusively for traditional fishermen. He also hopes that India’s first marine conservation reserve would materialise in Palk Bay in the near future. Madhu adds that making dugong a part of the school curriculum could do much for its conservation; And let’s hope the next generation gets to see the dugongs not merely in those books.
- Dugong (commonly known as sea cow) is the world's only vegetarian marine mammal.
- Found in: warm coastal waters from East Africa to Australia, including Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific.
- Threats: destruction and modification of habitat, pollution, rampant illegal fishing activities, vessel strikes, unsustainable hunting or poaching and unplanned tourism.
- IUCN status: Vulnerable
Dugongs are endangered marine species like sea turtles, seahorses, sea cucumbers and others. They are protected in India under Schedule I of the Wild (Life) Protection Act, 1972.
There were just 250 dugongs in the Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Gulf of Kutch in Gujarat according to the 2013 survey report of the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI).
Q3. Which of the following cultural practices of India is included in the UNESCO’s Intangible Heritage List?
- Kumbh Mela
Select the answer from codes given below
- 1 and 3 only
- 3 only
- 1 and 2 only
- 1, 2 and 3
- UNESCO defines “intangible” as “expressions that have been passed from one generation to another, have evolved in response to their environments and contribute to giving us a sense of identity and continuity…”
- According to an official document by UNESCO, ‘intangible cultural heritage’ includes “oral traditions, performing arts, social practices, rituals, festive events, knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe or the knowledge and skills to produce traditional crafts ”
What are India’s intangible cultural symbols on the UNESCO list?
- This year, India nominated Garba, a traditional dance form that originated in the state of Gujarat, for inscription on UNESCO’s ICH list.
- The elements which have been on the representative list of intangible cultural heritage from India in the past decade include Kolkata’s Durga Puja (2021), Kumbh Mela (2017), Navroz (2016), Yoga (2016), traditional brass and copper craft of utensil-making among coppersmiths of Punjab (2014), Sankirtana, a ritual musical performance of Manipur (2013), and the Buddhist chanting of Ladakh (2012).
- Before 2011, the list included Chhau dance, Kalbelia folk songs and dance of Rajasthan, and Mudiyettu, a dance drama from Kerala (2010), Ramman, a religious festival and theatre performance of Garhwal in the Himalayas (2009), and Kutiyattam or Sanskrit theatre, and Vedic chanting (2008).
- Ramlila, a traditional performance of Ramayana, was also included in 2008.
Who manages nominations to the UNESCO list in India?
- According to a press release by PIB, several autonomous bodies within the Ministry of Culture actively function towards promoting and preserving intangible cultural heritage within the country.
- Sangeet Natak Akademi is the nodal organisation which looks after this function, and files nominations of intangible cultural entities from India, for evaluation by the international body.
Q4. Which of the following strait is nearest to Andaman and Nicobar islands
- Strait of Malacca
- Strait of Hormuz
Q5. The Great Barrier Reef is situated near coast of
- New Zealand
The Great Barrier Reef is ‘in danger’: Australia pushes back
- A joint report by the IUCN and UNESCO’s World Heritage Centre has recommended that the Great Barrier Reef “be inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger”, something Australia is opposing.
The Great Barrier Reef:
- Located off the coast of Queensland, Australia, the GBR is the world’s largest coral reef system with over 2,900 individual reefs, 900 islands and an area covering approximately 344,400 square kilometres.
- An irreplaceable part of the global ecosystem, the GBR is one of the biggest biodiversity hotspots in the world as well as one of its largest carbon sinks.
- As much as 99 per cent of the property lies within the GBR Marine Park in order to protect it from wanton exploitation. It is managed as a “multiple use area”, with a range of commercial and tourism activities permitted.
- A zoning plan is at the cornerstone of GBR’s management, determining what is permitted and where. Development and land use activities in coastal and water catchments adjacent to the property also have a critical influence on the property and are managed by the Queensland Government.
What does putting GBR on the List of World Heritage in Danger entail?
- According to UNESCO, “the List of World Heritage in Danger is designed to inform the international community of conditions which threaten the very characteristics for which a property was inscribed on the World Heritage List, and to encourage corrective action.”
- Under the 1972 World Heritage Convention, inscribing a site on the List allows the WHC to allocate immediate assistance from the World Heritage Fund to the endangered property, while simultaneously gathering international support and attention to the site.