Daily Current Affairs (MCQ's) | 01-07-2022

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ's) | 01-07-2022

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ's) | 01-07-2022

Q1. Which of the following countries border with UAE?

  1. Saudi Arabia
  2. Oman
  3. Yemen

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2 only
  4. 1 and 2 only

Answer (d) 


Q2. Consider the following statements

  1. Fiber optics transmit light instead of electricity
  2. Fiber broadband or fiber internet is an internet connection powered by fiber optics instead of more traditional methods of data transmission like cable or DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
  3. Fiber broadband is considered to be much faster and more reliable compared to conventional broadband services and also immune to interference


Which of the above statements is/are correct?


  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


Answer (d)


What is fiber broadband?

Fiber broadband or fiber internet is an internet connection powered by fiber optics instead of more traditional methods of data transmission like cable or DSL (Digital Subscriber Line). Fiber broadband is considered to be much faster and reliable compared to conventional broadband services and also immune to interference.

A newer technology, fiber optics and fiber broadband continues to be unavailable in many regions, although adoption is increasing quickly. Fiber broadband services often offer multiple broadband plans just like regular service providers and these will also usually be significantly more expensive.

However, you may also find service providers offering both DSL and fiber services for a new connection, depending on how much you’re willing to spend. Fiber offers the fastest internet speeds, typically up to 1,000Mbps, compared to DSL and cable connections which usually offer up to 100Mbps and 400Mbps respectively. This is all possible due to fiber optics.


What are fiber optics?

Fiber optics transmit light instead of electricity. These cables can carry data over really long distances, including across entire oceans, and still offer seamless connectivity with fast speeds. This is possible because of optical fibers, slim tubes that use a physical phenomenon called total internal reflection to their advantage. These cables are made of a glass or plastic core, surrounded by a layer of cladding and protective sheaths. Both the core and cladding have high particular refractive indexes, with the cladding usually having a lower number than the core.

This allows light passed through the optical fiber to be continuously reflected inside it and carried over long distances. However, in the real world, air resistance inside the cable means that the light travelling through the optic fiber does weaken eventually.This is where repeaters or amplifiers come in. They are placed at strategic intervals where the optic signal is losing strength but still can be read. These signals are then converted from optical to digital, and back to optical before they are pushed further on with full strength until the next repeater. This process continues till the optical signal reaches its target.


Why is fiber broadband better?

In a nutshell, fiber broadband is better, faster and more reliable, because fiber optics themselves are better modes of data transmission compared to regular cables or DSL. Data transmission via optic fibers is faster and also immune to electronic interference. With cable or DSL connections, that usually work on electric signals transmitted via copper wiring, electromagnetic interference plays a key role in disruptions. These become a bigger problem over longer distances.

Why is fiber broadband not in use everywhere yet?

As you probably guessed, fiber broadband is not in use everywhere because it requires the layout and setup of fiber optics across areas. For instance, if you live in a remote village where there is no fiber connectivity yet, setting it up for one household alone becomes an expensive task. This is why you see fiber connectivity being offered to all households or housing societies in a residential area at once when the layout of optical fibers is set up in that area.

The second major reason is the cost involved. Fiber broadband connections are more expensive to setup and hence, the various plans you get also cost more than cable/DSL broadband plans. Cable and DSL connections are often much cheaper because they work on an network of cable and phone lines that already exist in most areas. This is not the case for fibers, which need fresh infrastructure to work, precisely the reason for the increased cost.

A third reason is the unlikelihood of people switching from an existing cable/DSL connection. In a price sensitive market like India, it becomes harder for fiber broadband service providers to convince users of cable or DSL connections to switch over. The higher cost of fiber connections become a barrier.

This is why fiber optic connections are usually marketed with the focus on speed, reliability and no loss in bandwidth, leveraging the precise problems that cable and DSL users face. In housing societies, you may even find inaugural offers for the first few customers who convince multiple people into signing up for a new connection, making it feasible to set up fiber connectivity for that particular society.

Once fiber optics reach more areas, costs should eventually go down. Hopefully, the benefits of a faster, more reliable connection in today’s world, where many of us depend on the 24X7 internet for our daily work, should become more apparent to customers.

Q3. Consider the following statements about the Gallium Nitride (GaN) chargers

  1. Gallium Nitride is much better at conducting high voltage over longer times compared to silicon
  2. It also allows electrical currents to travel faster through it
  3. GaN semiconductors are generally cheaper than silicon semiconductors


Which of the above statements is/are correct?


  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


Answer (a)


A new wave of chargers is set to hit the mainstream market soon called GaN chargers, which stands for Gallium Nitride chargers. These are smaller, more efficient and while they’re already being used with many devices, they could soon be the future of all chargers.


What is Gallium Nitride?

Gallium Nitride is a material that is considered a better alternative to silicon, which is usually used to transfer power to your device in most chargers. Gallium Nitride is much better at conducting high voltage over longer times compared to silicon. It also allows electrical currents to travel faster through it.

This makes Gallium Nitride a more efficient solution to materials used in chargers while being a faster solution as well. Thanks to the higher rate of conductivity, Gallium Nitride needs lesser energy than silicon to generate the same output. Less energy also translates to lower heat.

With lower heat, Gallium Nitride structures can be stacked closer to each other than other materials, which also means the overall structure (the charger) is smaller in size.


GaN Chargers

GaN chargers are more compact and better at charging your devices. These can charge supported laptops and smartphones not just more efficiently but faster as well. The smaller size allows for more use cases. For instance, some companies make GaN charger which are regular sized but offer things like multiple output ports, or support for various kinds of electrical sockets.

In theory, Gallium Nitride chargers also help you get a lower electricity bill, although for devices like smartphones and chargers, this difference will be too small to notice for many. You can buy Gallium Nitride chargers from third-party brands, or even check what charger you get with your phone or laptop. If it is a newer, premium gadget, chances are the bundled charger itself is a GaN unit.


So, why isn’t every charger a GaN charger?

GaN is not a common piece of technology just yet, and one factor here is the cost. GaN semiconductors generally cost more than silicon semiconductors. This is one of the main reasons all chargers are not using GaN yet. When the technology becomes more widely used, which could be the case in the near future, given the benefits, GaN chargers could become much cheaper to mass-produce due to companies investing in the initial manufacturing costs.

Moreover, just like chargers today are little computers with a circuit in their own right, computers can also be theoretically powered by Gallium Nitride semiconductors. Although this possibility is still far away.

Q4. Gulabi Meenakari is a GI-tagged art form of

  1. Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh
  2. Bidar in Karnataka
  3. Kerala
  4. Salem in Tamilnadu


Answer (a)


During the G7 meet in Germany, Prime Minister Narendra Modi gifted a gulabi meenakari brooch and cufflink set to US President Joe Biden. The cufflinks were specially prepared for the President with a matching brooch for the First Lady.

The Prime Minister had taken along a plethora of such artistic gifts for each of the G7 leaders.

Gulabi Meenakari is a GI-tagged art form of Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. A piece of pure silver is moulded into a base form, and the chosen design is embossed in the metal.

While pieces of black pottery from Nizamabad were gifted to Japanese PM Kishida Fumio, a Nandi-themed dokra art piece sourced from Chhattisgarh was presented to Argentina's President Alberto Fernandez, and a hand-painted tea set from Uttar Pradesh’s Bulandshahr was meant for British Prime Minister Boris Johnson.

“The gifts celebrated India’s diversity; what made the choice significant was that these were not particularly expensive items but a celebration of the craft traditions of India,” said a source privy to the selection.

Other leaders of the powerful grouping also got personalised and handpicked presents. French President Emmanuel Macron got a selection of ittar bottles from UP’s Kannauj that were packed in a custom-made zardozi box, Italian Prime Minister Mario Draghi was gifted a marble inlay table top that had its origins in Agra, while Senegal President Macky Sall was presented a range of Moonj baskets and cotton durries that were sourced from Prayagraj, Amethi and Sultanpur in UP. A handmade knotted silk carpet from Kashmir was gifted to Canadian PM Justin Trudeau, while German Chancellor Olaf Scholz was presented a metal marodi carving Matka from Moradabad.

Behind the selection, there was also an effort to find common links and celebrate shared traditions. For instance, to celebrate the shared Ramayana links between India and Indonesia, the PM gifted a lacquerware Ram Darbar to Indonesian President Joko Widodo. The GI-tagged lacquerware art-form has its roots in the temple town of Varanasi in UP. It is believed that the Indonesian version of Ramayana – known as Kakawin Ramayana – was written during the Medang Kingdom (8th-11th century) in Central Java. Similarly, marble inlay has its origins in the Opus sectile – a form of pietra dura popularised in the ancient and medieval Roman world where materials were cut and inlaid into walls and floors to make a picture or pattern.


Q5. Consider the following languages

  1. Dogri
  2. Maithili
  3. Garhwali (Pahari)
  4. Garo
  5. Bodo


Which of the above are part of the 8th schedule of the Indian Constitution?

  1. 2,4 and 5 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1, 2, 3 and 4
  4. 1, 2 and 5

Answer (d)


Currently, the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution contains 22 languages- Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Bodo, Santhali, Maithili and Dogri. Of these languages, 14 were initially included in the Constitution. Subsequently, Sindhi was added in 1967 by the 21st Constitutional Amendment Act; Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali were added in 1992 by the 71st Constitutional Amendment Act; and Bodo, Dogri, Maithili and Santali were added in 2003 by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act. Bodo language is in News due to the Bodo Peace Accord 2020.


Q6. Arrange the following minorities in decreasing order in terms of their population according to the Census 2011 -

  1. Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains
  2. Sikhs, Christians, Buddhists, Jains
  3. Sikhs, Christians, Jains, Buddhists
  4. Christians, Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists


Answer (a)