Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 30.05.22

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 30.05.22

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 30.05.22

Q1. Consider the following statements

  1. The Cr.P.C. provides for a paltry fine to be imposed on a person on whose complaint a person is arrested without sufficient grounds
  2. The constitutional courts exercise their vast powers sometimes to award monetary recompense to those arrested wrongfully

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

 

Answer (c)

Explanation

  • India needs a law to make compensation for unlawful arrest (Aryan Khan Case) a statutory right. The country does not have a law on the grant of compensation to those maliciously prosecuted.
  • However, constitutional courts do exercise their vast powers sometimes to award monetary recompense; the remedy of a civil suit is also available in law, but it is time- The Law Commission of India has recommended the enactment of a law to make compensation in such cases an enforceable right.
  • Currently, Section 358 of the Cr.P.C. provides for a paltry fine to be imposed on a person on whose complaint a person is arrested without sufficient grounds. Such provisions should be expanded to cover just compensation by the state for unnecessary arrests.
  • It is a sobering thought to note that even people with celebrity status and vast resources are not insulated from the misuse of police powers, even while recognising that it is still possible to vindicate one’s innocence and force the establishment to adopt a course correction.

 

 

Q2. Consider the following statements

  1. Article 16(4) and Article 16(4 A) of the Constitution provide fundamental right to reservation and promotion
  2. The right to equality of opportunity in public employment is a constitutionally guaranteed fundamental right

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

 

Answer (b)

Explanation:

 

Reservation is not a fundamental right:

  1. The jurisprudence of reservation relies on the symbiotic coexistence of constitutionally guaranteed equality of opportunity in public employment under Article 16 (1) of the Constitution of India and classifications thereunder various clauses of the same article, especially Article 16(4) and Article 16 (4 A), which are in the nature of facilitating provisions, vesting a discretion on the government to consider providing reservations for the socially and educationally backward sections of the society and to provide reservation in promotion to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, respectively.
  2. It is settled law, time and again reiterated by the Supreme Court, that there is no fundamental right to reservation or promotion under Article 16(4) or Article 16(4 A) of the Constitution, rather they are enabling provisions for providing reservation if the circumstances so warrant (Mukesh Kumar and Another vs State of Uttarakhand & 2020).
  3. However, these pronouncements in no way understate the constitutional directive under Article 46 that mandates that the state shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people and in particular Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

Q3. Which of the following cases is not linked to reservation in matters of Public employment?

 

  1. Indira Shawney Judgement
  2. Jarnail Singh vs Lachhmi Narain Gupta
  3. Nagaraj Judgement
  4. N. Godavarman Thirumulpad vs Union Of India

 

Answer (d)

Explanation:

 

Indira Shawney Judgement:

  1. In the judgment, a nine-judge bench presided by Chief Justice M.H. Kania upheld the constitutionality of the 27% reservation but put a ceiling of 50% unless exceptional circumstances warranting the breach, so that the constitutionally guaranteed right to equality under Article 14 would remain secure.
  2. The Court dwelled on the interrelationship between Articles 16(1) and 16(4) and declared that Article 16(4) is not an exception to article 16(1), but rather an illustration of classification implicit in article 16(1).
  3. While Article 16(1) is a fundamental right, Article 16(4) is an enabling Further, the Court directed the exclusion of the creamy layer by way of horizontal division of every other backward class into creamy layer and non- creamy layer.

 

The Constitution (Seventy-seventh Amendment) Act, 1995

  • In the Indra Sawhney case, the Supreme Court had held that Article 16(4) of the Constitution of India does not authorise reservation in the matter of promotions.
  • By the Constitution (Seventy-seventh Amendment) Act, 1995, Article 16(4-A), was inserted to provide that “nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for reservation in matters of promotion to any class or classes of posts in the services under the State in favour of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes which, in the opinion of the State, are not adequately represented in the services under the State”.
  • Later, two more amendments were brought, one to ensure consequential seniority and another to secure carry forward of unfilled vacancies of a year, the former by way of addition to Article 16(4 A) and the latter by way of adding Article 16(4 B).

 

The Constitution Bench Judgment in M. Nagaraj (2006)

  • A five-judge bench of the Supreme Court declared the 1995 amendment as not vocative of the basic structure of the Constitution but laid down certain conditions which included the collection of “quantifiable data showing backwardness of the class and inadequacy of representation of that class in public employment”.
  • The bench held that the creamy layer among Scheduled castes and tribes is to be excluded from the reservation.

 

Jarnail Singh vs Lachhmi Narain Gupta (2018)

  • The constitution bench invalidated the requirement to collect quantifiable data in relation to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes but upheld the principle of applicability of creamy lawyer in relation to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled tribes.
  • Jarnail Singh's judgment authored by Justice Rohinton Nariman indicates a critical turn in the jurisprudence of reservation.

 

The Constitution (103rd Amendment) Act, 2019

  • The 10% reservation for Economically Weaker Sections (EWS), other Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and backward classes for government jobs and admission in educational institutions is currently under challenge before the Supreme Court which has referred the same to a constitution bench.
  • The adjudication awaited in this regard may also turn out to be a critical milestone in the jurisprudence of reservation as the traditional understanding of backwardness is broadened to specifically include economic backwardness without social backwardness as is traditionally seen.

 

TN Godavarman Thirumulpad vs Union of India

The debate over defining a forest came to the fore in 1996 with the Supreme Court ruling in the case of TN Godavarman Thirumulpad vs Union of India. The case began as a petition to stop illegal felling of timber in the Nilgiri hills but expanded into an overhaul of the Indian forest policy. The Supreme Court said that forests would be defined by their “dictionary meaning”, without elaborating what this meaning was. It also assumed responsibility for implementing the Forest Conservation Act with this new definition.

 

The court ordered all non-forest activity like sawmills and mining to be suspended in forest areas and stopped felling of trees. It kept the Godavarman case open using the device of a “continuing mandamus” and heard hundreds of matters related to the implementation of the Forest Conservation Act. The ruling excluded the lower courts from admitting such application, leaving the Supreme Court the sole administrator of the law when it came to forest matters. This was until the creation of the National Green Tribunal in 2010 to “dispose of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources”.

 

 

 

Q4. The conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh Enclave includes countries of

 

  1. Belarus and Ukraine
  2. Azerbaijan and Armenia
  3. Ethiopia and Somalia
  4. Yemen and Southi Arabia

 

Answer (b)

Explanation:

  • Nagorno-Karabakh is a landlocked, mountainous and forested region, falling within the boundaries of Azerbaijan. Nagorno-Karabakh, called Artsakh in Armenian, hosts a predominantly ethnic Armenian population with an Azeri It is located in the South Caucasus region and is roughly made up of modern-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia.
  • Nagorno-Karabakh, which was once a part of the Armenian kingdom, has been ruled by several empires over the centuries — the Ottomans, the Persians, and the
  • During the First World War, the Ottomans, aided by Azeris, attacked the south As the Ottomans retreated at the end of the war, Azerbaijan and Armenia descended into a full-blown war in 1920.
  • A ceasefire signed in 1994 could not prevent multiple flare- ups between the Nagorno-Karabakh rebel armed forces backed by the Armenian military, and the Azerbaijani military.
  • Both countries have now agreed to formulate border security and delimitation commissions and start talks for a peace deal.

Q5. Which of the follwing are possible advantages of 5G technology over previous communication technologies?

 

  1. Increased capacity to handle number of devices
  2. Lower latency
  3. Energy efficiency
  4. Less interference between signals
  5. Enable new applications
  6. Need less closely spaced cell towers

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

  1. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
  2. 1, 2, 3 and 4
  3. 3, 4, 5 and 6
  4. 1, 4, 5, and 6

 

Answer (a)

Explanation:

With increased capacity, lower latency, and energy efficiency, 5G is expected to significantly improve the state of the art and enable new applications

Using the spectrum for communication:

  1. Radio electronics refers to a broad range of technologies that can transmit, receive and process wireless signals.
  2. While these technologies can utilise electromagnetic spectrum that goes all the way up to 300GHz, the lower frequencies of this spectrum are particularly attractive.
  3. Lower frequency signals can travel longer distances and penetrate obstacles with lesser Electronic components (amplifiers, transmitters, receivers) operating at lower frequencies are also easier to design and manufacture.
  4. Consequently, much of the bandwidth in the lower frequencies of this spectrum has already been allocated for several applications (mobile communications currently use the spectrum from 800MHz to 5 GHz).

 

New spectrum for 3GHz

    1. With the increasing demand for mobile services, the currently allocated spectrum is proving inadequate. At the simplest level, 5G represents the allocation of a new spectrum to increase capacity.
    2. Since most of the spectrum at lower frequencies is already being utilised — much of this new spectrum is being allocated at higher frequencies. The first deployments in India will be around 3GHz but will expand to 25 GHz and beyond.
    3. As 5G services evolve to occupy higher frequencies, it will significantly increase the bandwidth available for mobile However, at these frequencies, the design of the transmitting and receiving equipment becomes more complex.
    4. Signal attenuation (reduction in strength) also increases. So, the coverage area of each cell tower will decrease which will require the towers to be more closely spaced.
    5. An interesting fact related to the physics of signal transmission is that at higher frequencies it becomes easier to direct a signal in a specific So, signals transmitted from a cell tower can be more precisely directed at a specific user (rather than spreading out in various directions which is just a waste of energy).
    6. Intuitively, this enhanced directivity results in less interference between signals meant for different users which directly translates to increased capacity. Thus, while operating at higher frequencies has some fundamental challenges, it offers some unique opportunities as well.

Evolving communication needs

  1. Since much of the 5G infrastructure is being built from the ground up, there is a chance to redesign the technology to make it more suitable for the evolving communication needs of the future. 5G places special emphasis on low latency, energy efficiency and standardisation.
  2. Existing wireless communication infrastructure is primarily designed around the needs of mobile phones. However, several emerging applications in factory automation, gaming and remote healthcare have more stringent latency requirements.
  3. Self-driving cars is an illustrative Low delays between transmission and reception of messages are extremely critical when these cars have to co-operate with each other to avoid accidents.
  4. As 5G rolls out, over the next several years the volume of data is expected to exponentially increase. To ensure that there isn’t a corresponding increase in energy usage, 5G places a lot of importance on energy efficiency. This will mean lower energy bills for service providers and longer battery life for mobile devices.

 

 

Q6. The contentious Etalin hydroelectric project is situated in

 

  1. Arunachal Pradesh
  2. Ladakh
  3. Sikkim
  4. Tripura

 

Answer (a)

Explanation:

  1. The contentious Etalin hydroelectric project in Arunachal Pradesh’s Dibang Valley has been cleared by the power ministry and impact assessment division of the environment ministry and is awaiting approval of the Forest Advisory Committee (FAC).
  2. Several environmentalists and scientists have raised concerns over the 3,097MW hydropower project as it involves the diversion of 1165.66 ha of forest land and the felling of around 8 lakh trees in dense subtropical evergreen and subtropical rainforests.

    The northeast region has a hydropower potential of around 63,000 MW, of which about 50,000 MW is in Arunachal Pradesh alone.