Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 28.12.21

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 28.12.21

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 28.12.21

Q1. Which of the following protected areas is/are found in Brahmaputra Valley?

1. Dehing Patkai National Park
2. Manas National Park
3. Dibru-Saikhowa National Park
4. Khangchendzonga National Park

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

a. 2, 3, 4 only
b. 1 and 2 only
c. 1, 2 and 4 only
d. 1, 2 and 3 only

Answer : d

Why is the Question ?

Brahmaputra Valley
This area has been densely populated for centuries and most of the valley has been and still is used for agriculture but some blocks of natural habitat do remain, mainly in national parks the largest of which are Manas, Dibru-Saikhowa and Kaziranga National Parks in India. In Bhutan, these areas are part of Royal Manas National Park

Protected areas
In 1997, the World Wildlife Fund identified twelve protected areas in the ecoregion, with a combined area of approximately 2,560 km2, that include 5% of the ecoregion's area.
1. Dehing Patkai Landscape, including Dehing Patkai National Park and Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve
2. Mehao Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh (190 km2, also includes portions of the Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests and Himalayan subtropical pine forests)
3. Manas National Park, Assam (560 km2)
4. Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam (90 km2)
5. Kaziranga National Park, Assam (320 km2)
6. Orang National Park, Assam (110 km2)
7. Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam (170 km2)
8. Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam (80 km2)
9. Sonai Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam (160 km2)
10. Nameri National Park, Assam (90 km2)
11. Dibru-Saikhowa National Park, Assam (490 km2)
12. D'Ering Memorial Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh (190 km2)
13. Pabha Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam (110 km2)

Q2. The last remaining natural habitat of Pygmy Hog is

a. Panna National Park
b. Manas National Park
c. Kaziranga National Park
d. Simlipal National Park

Answer : b

Why is the Question ?

The grasslands in Manas National Park may be the last refuge for the pygmy hog, the world’s smallest and rarest wild pig, which was once widespread across the base of the Himalayas, but now facing imminent extinction. The pygmy hog is designated as a Schedule I species in India under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, and offences against them invite heavy penalties. Porcula salvania is the scientific name. The species name salvania is after the sal forests where it was found.
The pygmy hog used to be widespread in the tall, wet grasslands in the southern Himalayan foothills from Uttar Pradesh through Nepal, Bangladesh, northern West Bengal to Assam. By 2002, only one viable population remained in Manas National Park, which had been estimated to comprise a few hundred individuals.

Q3. Consider the following statements a protected area

1. Zemu Glacier is located within the park boundaries
2. The park falls within the Himalaya global biodiversity hotspot
3. The Himalayas are narrowest here resulting in extremely steep terrain

Which of the following National Parks is being discussed here?

a. Khangchendzonga National Park
b. Dehing Patkai National Park
c. Great Himalayan National Park
d. Nanda Devi National Park

Answer : a

Why is the Question ?

Located at the heart of the Himalayan range in northern India (State of Sikkim), the Khangchendzonga National Park includes a unique diversity of plains, valleys, lakes, glaciers and spectacular, snow-capped mountains covered with ancient forests, including the world’s third-highest peak, Mount Khangchendzonga. Mythological stories are associated with this mountain and with a great number of natural elements (caves, rivers, lakes, etc.) that are the object of worship by the indigenous people of Sikkim. The sacred meanings of these stories and practices have been integrated with Buddhist beliefs and constitute the basis for Sikkimese identity.
Situated in the northern Indian state of Sikkim, Khangchendzonga National Park (KNP) exhibits one of the widest altitudinal ranges of any protected area worldwide. The Park has an extraordinary vertical sweep of over 7 kilometres (1,220m to 8,586m) within an area of only 178,400 ha and comprises a unique diversity of lowlands, steep-sided valleys and spectacular snow-clad mountains including the world’s thirdhighest peak, Mt. Khangchendzonga. Numerous lakes and glaciers, including the 26 km long Zemu Glacier, dot the barren high altitudes.
The property falls within the Himalaya global biodiversity hotspot and displays an unsurpassed range of sub-tropical to alpine ecosystems. The Himalayas are narrowest here resulting in extremely steep terrain which magnifies the distinction between the various eco-zones which characterise the property. The Park is located within a mountain range of global biodiversity conservation significance and covers 25% of the State of Sikkim, acknowledged as one of India’s most significant biodiversity concentrations. The property is home to a significant number of endemic, rare and threatened plant and animal species. The property has one of the highest numbers of plant and mammal species recorded in the Central/High Asian Mountains and also has a high number of bird species.
Khangchendzonga National Park’s grandeur is undeniable and the Khangchendzonga Massif, other peaks and landscape features are revered across several cultures and religions. The combination of extremely high and rugged mountains covered by intact old-growth forests up to the unusually high timberline further adds to the exceptional landscape beauty.
Mount Khangchendzonga and many natural features within the property and its wider setting are endowed with deep cultural meanings and sacred significance, giving form to the multilayered landscape of Khangchendzonga, which is sacred as a hidden land both to Buddhists (Beyul) and to Lepchas as Mayel Lyang, representing a unique example of co-existence and exchange between different religious traditions and ethnicities, constituting the base for Sikkimese identity and unity. The ensemble of myths, stories and notable events, as well as the sacred texts themselves, convey and manifest the cultural meanings projected onto natural resources and the indigenous and specific Buddhist cosmology that developed in the Himalayan region.
The indigenous traditional knowledge of the properties of local plants and the local ecosystem, which is peculiar to local peoples, is on the verge of disappearing and represents a precious source of information on the healing properties of several endemic plants. The traditional and ritual management system of forests and the natural resources of the land pertaining to Buddhist monasteries express the active dimension of Buddhist cosmogonies and could contribute to the property's effective management.

Q4. In the recently released Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) of Protected Areas (PAs), Tirthan Wildlife Sanctuary has been ranked as the best managed protected areas in the country. In which of the following states does this sanctuary lie?

a. Himachal Pradesh
b. Uttar Pradesh
c. Madhya Pradesh
d. West Bengal

Answer : a

Why is the Question ?

The Great Himalayan National Park (GHNP) and Tirthan Wildlife Sanctuary in Himachal Pradesh have been ranked as the best managed protected areas in the country. Sainj Wildlife Sanctuary in HP has also been placed among the top five on the list.
Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Shri Prakash Javadekar released the Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) of 146 National Park and Wildlife Sanctuaries in the Country. At present, India has a network of 903 Protected Areas in the country covering about 5% of the total geographic area of the country. In order to assess the efficacy of Protected Areas, evaluation of management effectiveness is required.

Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) of Protected Areas (PAs) has emerged as a key tool for PA managers and is increasingly being used by governments and international bodies to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the protected area management systems.
The results of the present assessment are encouraging with an overall mean MEE score of 62.01% which is higher than the global mean of 56%. With this round of evaluation, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change(MoEFCC) successfully completed one full cycle of evaluating all terrestrial National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries of the country from 2006 to 2019.
MEE is a very important document that provides valuable guidance on various aspects of wildlife and protected area expand MEE of Marine Protected Areas. A new framework for MEE of Marine Protected Areas has been also jointly prepared by WII and MoEF&CC and it will be a very useful document to implement.
The Environment Minister also launched the Management Effectiveness Evaluation of Indian Zoos (MEE-ZOO) framework which proposes guidelines, criteria and indicators for the evaluation of zoos of the country through the Management Effectiveness Evaluation Process (MEE-ZOO) in a manner that is discrete, holistic and independent.
The assessment criteria and indicators look beyond the traditional concepts, include issues of animal welfare, husbandry and sustainability of resources and finance. The MEE-ZOO exercise is moving towards developing the highest standards in Zoos across India and adhering to core values of accountability, transparency, innovation, use of technology, collaboration and integrity to achieve the mandate of conservation of endangered species.

Q5. Todas are an ancient pastoralist tribe. Both the livelihood and the culture of the Todas revolve around the Toda buffalo, a breed of the Asiatic water buffalo. With an alarming decrease in the number of Toda buffaloes, the Todas and local conservationists have been finding novel ways to revive the buffalo population. Todas are native to

a. Nilgiri Hills
b. Jaintia Hills
c. Andaman Islands
d. Lakshadweep Islands

Answer : a

Why is the Question ?

Todas of the Nilgiris mountains
1. Todas are an ancient pastoralist tribe who inhabit the Nilgiris mountains in South India.
2. Both the livelihood and the culture of the Todas revolve around the Toda buffalo, a breed of the Asiatic water buffalo.
3. With an alarming decrease in the number of Toda buffaloes, the Todas and local conservationists have been finding novel ways to revive the buffalo population. The Todas may have moved up the Nilgiris 3500 years ago: study
1. Researchers conjecture that the Todas, an indigenous tribe residing in the upper Nilgiris, may have moved up the mountains with their buffalo herds in response to climate change 3500 years ago. The research predates their origin by at least 1500 years as held by historical records.
2. The inference of Todas’ arrival in the upper Nilgiris 3500 years ago is based on reconstructing the Sandynallah basin’s paleoecology in the region. The reconstruction points to the presence of fire, humans, herbivores, and grasslands 3500 years ago.
3. The research suggests that environmental conditions (an arid climate with a weak summer monsoon) 3500 years ago would have favoured wildfires. The Todas, numbering only 1500 today, are known to manage the high-altitude grasslands with fires.
4. The evidence opens up interdisciplinary fields of paleoecology, archaeology, and human ecology of the montane Nilgiris and the broader region of peninsular India.
5. Todas are one of the six indigenous tribes inhabiting the high mountains of the Nilgiris in the Western Ghats. The Todas are a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group with around 1500 members.

The Nilgiris is also home to six ancient indigenous communities and tribes – Badagas (traditionally settled agriculturists and the largest numerically), Todas (pastoralists occupying the upper plateau), Kotas (artisans) and Irulas, Kurumbas and Paniyars (hunter-gatherers, who also practice settled agriculture now). The Todas are a current-day pastoralist community who worship the buffaloes they keep; their cattle are central to their culture. They are known to manage high-altitude grasslands with fires. The Nilgiris are among the highest mountains in the long Western Ghats mountain chain, with peaks and plateaus ranging from 1700-2600 metres. The mountain tops were originally covered in vast rolling grasslands, with clumps of stunted evergreen trees called sholas in the middle because of these altitudes. The grassland-shola combination unique to the Western Ghats’ higher reaches is considered to be more than 20,000 years old.