Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 27.12.21

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 27.12.21

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 27.12.21

Q1. Consider the following statements about Vertical Farming

1. It uses soil-less methods such as hydroponics, aquaponics and aeroponics
2. Pesticide-free or organic food can be produced
3. Pollination is easy and cheap
4. Relies too much on technology and power loss would result in devastating impacts

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 and 2 only
b. 1 and 3 only
c. 1, 2 and 4
d. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer : c

Why is the Question ?\

Vertical farms are poised to capitalise on a $50 billion market opportunity with the ability to grow more flavorful, fresher, pesticide-free produce - using less land, water and labour than conventional farms. Barclays Research analysts highlight how vertical farming can reduce water pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, hedge against climate change and ensure a fresh food supply at a local level.
Agriculture accounts for nearly a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions, nearly two-thirds of freshwater use, and is the biggest water polluter in many countries. Produce often travels 1,500 miles before it reaches the end consumer and roughly half of all global crops perish before they arrive at grocery stores, according to insights from Barclays Research. Inefficiencies of this magnitude set the stage for vertical farming, one of the few tangible sustainability initiatives in agriculture and a method that could benefit the planet, consumers and investors.
Vertical farming
Vertical farming is the practice of producing food in vertically stacked layers and vertically inclined surfaces. Crops are grown indoors, under artificial conditions of light and temperature. It uses soil-less methods such as hydroponics, aquaponics and aeroponics.
Advantages of vertical farming
1. Can yield 390 times higher food per square foot while using 95% less water than traditional agricultural methods.
2. Crops aren't subject to seasons and hence give high productivity year-round
3. Pesticide-free or organic food is produced
4. Offers a plan to handle future food demands.
Challenges in vertical farming
1. High Initial cost for establishing the vertical farming system

2. Difficult and costly Pollination
3. Higher labour costs
4. Relies too much on technology and power loss would result in devastating impacts

Q2. Consider the following statements about Pusa Decomposer

1. It is a fungi-based liquid solution that can soften hard stubble to act as compost
2. It will also help in retaining the essential microbes and nutrients in the soil

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : c

Why is the Question ?

It is a common practice in October and November across NorthWest India, but primarily in Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh to quickly clear crop residue from their fields before planting the rabi wheat crop.
Several solutions have been proposed over the years to tackle the issue. The most recent one, which has been billed as a gamechanger if found successful, is the ‘Pusa Decomposer’ capsule developed by IARI.
What is the ‘Pusa Decomposer’?
It is essentially a fungi-based liquid solution that can soften hard stubble to the extent that it can be easily mixed with soil in the field to act as compost.
This would then rule out the need to burn the stubble, and also help in retaining the essential microbes and nutrients in the soil that are otherwise damaged when the residue is burned.

How long does it take for the decomposer to work?
The window of time required for the solution to work, which is currently the main concern of farmers, is around 20 to 25 days, as per the IARI.
Farmers argue that this window is too long for them, as they ideally wait about a week or 10 days after harvesting the nonbasmati variety of rice — which leaves hard stubble — to sow the wheat crop.

IARI scientists, however, say that farmers do not necessarily have to plant the next crop in a rush — and that 20-25 days is enough waiting time.
How is the decomposer to be used by farmers?
There are seven strains of fungi that IARI has identified after research which help in rapid breakdown of hard stubble. These seven strains of fungi are packed into four capsules, which cost about Rs 20 per pack of four. But there is a process for developing the liquid solution from these capsules which can take about four to five days.
It starts with boiling 25 litres of water mixed with 150 grams of jaggery, which scientists say has properties that help in the multiplication of fungi.
After this mix has cooled, 50 grams of besan (or gram flour) is added to it along with four ‘Pusa Decomposer’ capsules.
This solution is then covered with a thin piece of cloth and left in a dark room for four days. On the fourth day, a thick growth of fungi will be seen on top of the solution. This has to be mixed well, and thereafter the solution is ready for use.

Q3. Aquaponics is a form of agriculture that combines raising fish in tanks (recirculating aquaculture) with soilless plant culture (hydroponics). Consider the following statements in this regard


1. It saves a lot of water

2. The nutrient-rich water from raising fish provides a natural fertiliser for the plants
3. The plants help to purify the water for the fish

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 and 2 only
b. 2 and 3 only
c. 1 and 3 only
d. 1, 2 and 3

Answer : d

Why is the Question ?

Aquaponics is a form of agriculture that combines raising fish in tanks (recirculating aquaculture) with soilless plant culture (hydroponics).

• In aquaponics, the nutrient-rich water from raising fish provides a natural fertiliser for the plants and the plants help to purify the water for the fish.
• An aquaponics system uses 90% less water versus traditional farming.
Aquaponics is a sustainable method of raising both fish and vegetables. It is popular with individuals, entrepreneurs, educators, missions and governments. Furthermore, with this type of indoor farming, you grow substantially more food with less water, land and labour than traditional agriculture.
Aquaponics is a completely natural process that mimics all lakes, ponds, rivers and waterways on Earth. The only input into an aquaponics system is fish food. The fish eat the food and excrete waste, which is converted by beneficial bacteria to nutrients that the plants can use. In consuming these nutrients, the plants help to purify the water. You cannot use herbicides, pesticides or other harsh chemicals in an aquaponics system, making the fish and plants healthful and safe to eat.

Benefits of Aquaponics
1. Use 1/6th of the water to grow 8 times more food per acre compared to traditional agriculture!
2. All-natural fertiliser source from fish waste.
3. No reliance on mined and manufactured fertilisers.
4. Efficient, sustainable and highly productive.
5. Produce is free of pesticides and herbicides.
6. Fish are free of growth hormones and antibiotics.

7. Allows continuous production of food.
8. Produces both a protein and vegetable crop.
9. The integrated system is sustainable and earth-friendly.
10. Eliminating soil eliminates soil-borne diseases.
11. When combined with Controlled Environment Agriculture, you can grow year-round in any climate

Q4. National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) is a pollution control initiative launched by the Ministry of Environment to cut the concentration of coarse (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5) by at least 20% in the next five years, with 2017 as the base year for comparison. Consider the following statements in this regard

1. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) will execute the programme
2. Programme targets 8 major metro cities only

3. It aims to meet annual average ambient air quality standards

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 and 2 only
b. 2 and 3 only
c. 1 and 3 only
d. 1, 2 and 3

Answer : c

Why is the Question ?

National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) is a pollution control initiative launched by the Ministry of Environment to cut the concentration of coarse (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5) by at least 20% in the next five years, with 2017 as the base year for comparison. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) executes the programme for the prevention, control, and abatement of air pollution within the framework of NCAP. It directs state governments to implement action plans immediately under NCAP.

Q5. The Global E-waste Monitor 2020 report found that the world dumped a record 53.6 million tonnes of e-waste last year. Just 17.4% was recycled. Consider the following statements in this regard

1. The USA was the biggest contributor to e-waste
2. India is the second-largest e-waste generator
3. The report is released by Global E-waste Statistics Partnership (GESP)

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 and 2 only
b. 2 only
c. 3 only
d. 1, 2 and 3

Answer : c

Why is the Question ?

The Global E-waste Monitor 2020 report found that the world dumped a record 53.6 million tonnes of e-waste last year. Just 17.4% was recycled. Even countries with a formal e-waste management system in place are confronted with the relatively low collection and recycling rates,” the report said.
China, with 10.1 million tonnes, was the biggest contributor to ewaste, and the United States was second with 6.9 million tonnes. India, with 3.2 million tonnes, was third. Together these three countries accounted for nearly 38% of the world’s e-waste last year.

The Global E-waste Monitor 2020 is a collaborative product of the

1. Global E-waste Statistics Partnership (GESP), formed by the United Nations University (UNU).
2. International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
3. International Solid Waste Association (ISWA).
4. UN Environment Programme (UNEP).

Q6. Project Tiger of India is considered one of the most successful conservation projects in the world. Consider the following statements regarding tiger census done recently in 2018

1. All the tiger reserves in the country have more than 50 tigers
2. Madhya Pradesh has the highest number of Tigers among states

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : b

Why is the Question ?

The Corbett Tiger Reserve in Uttarakhand has the highest number of 231 big cats in the country while three reserves in Mizoram, West Bengal and Jharkhand have none, says a new report released on Tuesday which is based on tiger estimation done last year.
The over 600-page report of the fourth All India Tiger Estimation 2018 was released by Union Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar on the eve of Global Tiger Day, celebrated on July 29 every year, shows reserve-wise and state-wise tiger population distribution.
The 'Status of Tigers, Co-predators and Prey in India report for 2018' showed that out of the 50 tiger reserves in the country, three reserves - Mizoram's Dampa reserve, West Bengal's Buxa reserve and Jharkhand's Palamau reserve - have no tigers left.
Currently, the tiger population within the reserves is 1,923 (65% of the total tiger population of India), the report said.
According to the population estimation of tigers in reserves for 2018-19, Corbett has 231 tigers followed by Nagarhole and Bandipur reserves in Karnataka with 127 and 126 tigers respectively.
Assam's Kaziranga and Madhya Pradesh's Bandhavgarh recorded 104 tigers each, the report said.
It said some reserves like Similipal (Odisha), Amrabad and Kawal in Telangana, Nagarjunsagar SriSailam (Andhra Pradesh), Palamau (Jharkhand), Sanjay-Dubri (MP), Nameri and Manas in Assam, Buxa (West Bengal), Dampa (Mizoram), Anshi Dandeli (Karnataka) and Pakke (Arunachal Pradesh) are below their potential and require resources and targeted management.