Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 24.12.21

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 24.12.21

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 24.12.21

Q1. Which of the following agencies released the Sixth Edition of the Adaptation Gap Report, 2021?

  1. The Food and Agriculture Organisation
  2. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
  3. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  4. The World Economic Forum

Answer : b

Why is the Question ?

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) launched the 6th edition of the UNEP Adaptation Gap Report: The Gathering Storm in a high-level online press event. The report provides an update on the global status and progress of the adaptation process across three elements: planning, financing, and implementation. In addition, the report assesses the overall results in adaptation using a forward-looking approach and takes a thematic deep dive into the COVID-19 implications on adaptation progress.

 As the world looks to step up efforts to cut greenhouse gas emissions – efforts that are still nowhere near strong enough, the report finds that the growth in climate impacts is far outpacing our efforts to adapt to them.

 The Paris Agreement requires all its signatories to plan and implement adaptation measures through national adaptation plans, studies, monitoring of climate change effects. 

Q2. Tso Kar wetland complex was recently declared as Ramsar wetland of international importance. The complex is famous for its grasslands loving Black-necked cranes. It is situated in 

  1. Ladakh
  2. Arunachal Pradesh
  3. Himachal Pradesh
  4. Sikkim

Answer : a

Why is the Question ?

Tso Kar wetland complex

This high-altitude wetland complex is found at more than 4,500 metres above

sea level in the Changthang region of Ladakh. The complex includes two connected lakes- the freshwater Startsapuk Tso and the larger hypersaline Tso Kar. The name Tso Kar refers to the white salt efflorescence on the margins of the lake caused by the evaporation of the saline waters.

The local climate is arid, and glacial meltwater is the primary water source for the lakes. The Site also acts as an important stopover ground for migratory birds along the Central Asian Flyway and is one of the most important breeding areas in India for the black-necked crane.

Q3. Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) released a report titled ‘Assessment of Climate Change over the Indian Region’. Consider the following statements in this regard

  1. Indian ocean experienced cooling effect since Industrial Revolution
  2. The Himalayan region is experiencing accelerated warming
  3. Droughts, both the frequency and spatial extent, have increased significantly in India

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer : b

Why is the Question ?

The Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) released a report titled ‘Assessment of Climate Change over the Indian Region’. It is a first-ever attempt to document and assess climate change in different parts of India. The report highlights the observed and projected changes in various climatic dimensions over the Indian region, their impacts and various policy actions to deal with the regional climate change.

Highlights: 

  1. Hindu Kush Himalayas experienced temperature rises 1.3°C during 1951–2014. The projected rise by the end of the 21st century is 5.2°C.
  2. Sea surface temperature of the tropical Indian Ocean rose by 1°C on average during 1951–2015 ( greater than global average SST warming 0.7°C).
  3. Droughts, both the frequency and spatial extent, have increased significantly during 1951–2016. 
  4. Sea-level rise in the North Indian Ocean occurred at a rate of 1.06–1.75 mm per year during 1874–2004 and has accelerated to 3.3 mm per year between 1993–2017.

Q4. Consider the following statements about Hydrogen Fuel Cell

  1. Hydrogen fuel cell systems are used for storing electricity just like batteries
  2. Hydrogen fuel cell systems give water and heat as the only by-products

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2 
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : b

Why is the Question ?

Hydrogen fuel cell systems are used for generating electricity, in vehicular applications (Fuel cell cars, buses, etc.) and portable devices (Laptops, phones, etc.)

Fuel cells can deliver the zero-pollution, the high-efficiency answer to much of our air pollution and global warming dilemmas.

A fuel cell is an electrochemical power generation device that combines hydrogen fuel, with oxygen from the air, to produce electricity, with water and heat as the only by-products. 

A fuel cell is a device that generates electricity by a chemical reaction. An

electrolyte (membrane) carries electrically charged particles from one electrode to the other (anode and cathode), as well as uses catalysts to speed up the reactions and produce electricity at the electrodes.

Benefits:

  1. Eliminates pollution: Only water vapour and heat are emissions from the fuel cell.
  2. Do not need periodically recharging like batteries and produce electricity as long as supplied with a hydrogen and oxygen (usually air) source
  3. Higher electrical efficiency
  4. Noise-free operation

Fuel cells and batteries are similar as they both generate electricity. But a battery stores energy in its electrodes, while a fuel cell uses an external fuel such as hydrogen allowing it to continue operating as long as fuel is available. Unlike conventional batteries, however, fuel cells do not contain harmful materials, nor do they have moving parts thereby minimising maintenance requirements.

Many governments worldwide are setting mandates and timelines for the adoption of zero-emission electric transportation solutions. While consumer preference will determine whether the option is battery or fuel cells, many see fuel cells as the technology of choice for those desiring longer vehicle range capabilities while battery electric vehicles will be ideal as city cars. Hydrogen

fuel cells are seen as the more efficient choice for heavier vehicles such as transit buses or trucks, due to the weight and range constraints of battery-only options. 

Limitations of HFC: High cost of catalysts (platinum), High cost of equipment, issues with storage of hydrogen gas, maintenance issues (like corrosion) etc.

Q5. The Climate Adaptation and Resilience for South Asia (CARE) Project will help develop a public platform to inform climate planning and investments, and fund innovative and disruptive technology to support resilience in South Asia. It will also assess climate impacts in districts across Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan to support agriculture, livestock, water, and transport. CARE Project is an initiative of 

  1. The World Bank
  2. The Food and Agriculture Organisation 
  3. The United Nations Environment Programme 
  4. Green Climate Fund

Answer : a

Why is the Question ?

The Climate Adaptation and Resilience for South Asia (CARE) Project will help develop a public platform to inform climate planning and investments, and fund innovative and disruptive technology to support resilience in South Asia. It will also assess climate impacts in districts across Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan to support agriculture, livestock, water, and transport.

It includes a $36 million grant from the International Development Association (The World Bank agency) and $3.5 million from the Program for Asia Resilience to Climate Change. CARE will work with two regional organisations:

  1. Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System for Africa and Asia (RIMES)
  2. Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC)

 

Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC) hosted the first Climate Adaptation Platform-South Asia (CAP-South Asia) regional policy dialogue in December 2020 that highlighted the critical need to share lessons and bolster access to climate adaptation finance in the region.

Participants included government officials representing relevant technical ministries and departments from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, development partners, and other stakeholders.

Following up on the Bangkok Statement adopted by the Regional Consultative Committee on Disaster Management (RCC) in early 2020, CAP-South Asia was established with support from the World Bank through the Climate Adaptation and Resilience (CARE) for South Asia project that aims to promote regional dialogue and knowledge-sharing on climate adaptation in the region.

Countries and experts discussed specific areas of interventions to enhance the adaptive capacities of climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture, integrated water resources management, resilient infrastructure, and policy and planning in South Asia both at the national and regional level.

Q6. Consider the following statements about Sustainable Alternative towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT)

  1. It will promote Hydrogen fuel cell (HFC) technology in India
  2. It aims to establish an ecosystem for the production of Compressed BioGas from various waste

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2 
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : b

Why is the Question ?

Sustainable Alternative towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT): It was launched to establish an ecosystem for the production of Compressed BioGas from various waste/ biomass sources in the country.

It is aimed at setting up CBG production plants and makes it available in the market for use in automotive fuels by inviting Expression of Interest from potential

Entrepreneurs. It envisages setting up 5000 CBG plants by FY 2023-24. It was launched by The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MoPNG) in 2018.

Petronet LNG signed a pact with the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MoPNG) for setting up compressed biogas (CBG) plants under the SATAT initiative.

Municipal solid waste, sugar industry waste (press mud) and agricultural residue have significant potential for production of the CBG. Our oil and gas CPSEs have come forward to promote the use of CBG by offering floor price to offtake CBG for the first 10 years through upfront commercial agreements. Given the abundance of biomass in the country, CBG has the potential to support the development of alternate clean fuel in automotive, industrial and commercial uses in the coming years. We have proposed that CBG plants be primarily set up through independent entrepreneurs. CBG produced at these plants will be transported through cascades of cylinders to the fuel station networks of OMCs for marketing as a green transport fuel alternative.

Benefits out of the SATAT will go to our farmers, rural areas and tribals. With the inclusion of forest waste, Agri-waste, animal husbandry waste and marine waste, SATAT involves a multi-pronged approach. With a liberalized policy regime ensuring ease of doing business for entrepreneurs, off-take guarantee, financing and technology support, SATAT is all set to contribute towards doubling farmer’s income, generating employment for the youth and ensuring clean energy for sustainable development.

The Reserve Bank of India has included the CBG in the priority sector lending framework.

Over the last two years, SATAT has grown into one of the flagship programs of MoPNG. SATAT will establish an ecosystem for the production of Compressed BioGas from various waste and biomass sources in the country leading to multiple benefits viz. reduction of natural gas import, reduction of GHG emission, reduction in burning of agriculture residues, remunerative income to farmers, employment generation, effective waste management etc. The initiative is in line with the goals of AtmaNirbhar Bharat, Swachh Bharat Mission and boosting the MSME sector.