Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 17.01.22

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 17.01.22

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 17.01.22

Q1. Consider the following statements about Light Pollution

1. It affects the migratory habits of birds and marine turtles
2. It makes it easier to observe the Milky ways and stars these days

Which of the above statements is/are correct ?
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : a

Why is the Question ?

A little more than 100 years ago, you could walk outside at night even in a city and see the Milky Way galaxy arch across the night sky. Being able to see thousands of stars as part of everyday life, inspiring artists like Van Gogh or musical composers like Holst or writers like Shakespeare. By allowing artificial lights to wash out our starry night skies, we are losing touch with our cultural heritage (e.g., what has made us who we are). We are also losing touch with what could inspire future generations.
Effects of Light Pollution
In disrupting ecosystems, light pollution poses a serious threat in particular to nocturnal wildlife, having negative impacts on plant and animal physiology. It can confuse the migratory patterns of animals, alter competitive interactions of animals, change predator-prey relations, and cause physiological harm. The rhythm of life is orchestrated by the natural diurnal patterns of light and dark; so disruption to these patterns impacts the ecological dynamics.
Artificial Lights Can Lead Baby Sea turtles to their Demise Sea turtles live in the ocean but hatch at night on the beach. Hatchlings find the sea by detecting the bright horizon over the ocean. Artificial lights draw them away from the ocean. In Florida alone, millions of hatchlings die this way every year.

Artificial Lights have Devastating Effects on Many Bird Species Migrating Birds
Birds that migrate or hunt at night navigate by moonlight and starlight. Artificial light can cause them to wander off course and toward the dangerous nighttime landscapes of cities. Every year millions of birds die colliding with needlessly illuminated buildings and towers. Migratory birds depend on cues from properly timed seasonal schedules. Artificial lights can cause them to migrate too early or too late and miss ideal climate conditions for nesting, foraging and other behaviours.
Ecosystems: Everything is Connected
Many insects are drawn to light, but artificial lights can create a fatal attraction. Declining insect populations negatively impact all species that rely on insects for food or pollination. Some predators exploit this attraction to their advantage, affecting food webs in unanticipated ways.
With respect to adverse health effects, many species, especially humans, are dependent on natural body cycles called circadian rhythms and the production of melatonin, which are regulated by light and dark (e.g., day and night). If humans are exposed to light while sleeping, melatonin production can be suppressed. This can lead to sleep disorders and other health problems such as increased headaches, worker fatigue, medically defined stress, some forms of obesity due to lack of sleep and increased anxiety. And ties are being found to a couple of types of cancer. There are also effects of glare on ageing eyes. (See text below.) Health effects are not only due to over-illumination or excessive exposure of light over time but also the improper spectral composition of light (e.g., certain colours of light).
With respect to energy wastage, lighting is responsible for at least one-fourth of all electricity consumption worldwide. Over illumination can constitute energy wastage, especially upward directed lighting at night. Energy wastage is also a waste in cost and carbon footprint.
The good news is that light pollution can be reduced fairly easily by shielding lights properly, by only using light when and where it is needed, by only using the amount that is needed, by using energy-efficient bulbs, and by using bulbs with appropriate spectral power distributions for the task at hand.

Q2. Consider the following statements about the Ozone

1. Ozone is a greenhouse gas
2. Ground-level ozone is part of Photochemical smog
3. Ozone in the stratosphere is vital for Human survival

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 and 2 only
b. 2 and 3 only
c. 1 and 3 only

d. 1, 2 and 3

Answer : d

Why is the Question ?

Ozone is a gas composed of three atoms of oxygen (O3). Ozone occurs both in the Earth's upper atmosphere and at ground level. Ozone can be good or bad, depending on where it is found.
Ozone is technically a greenhouse gas, but ozone is helpful or harmful depending on where it is found in the earth's atmosphere. Ozone occurs naturally at higher elevations in the atmosphere (the stratosphere) where it forms a layer that blocks ultraviolet (UV) light, which is harmful to plant and animal life, from reaching the earth’s surface. The protective benefit of stratospheric ozone outweighs its contribution to the greenhouse effect and to global warming. However, at lower elevations of the atmosphere (the troposphere), ozone is harmful to human health.

Called stratospheric ozone, good ozone occurs naturally in the upper atmosphere, where it forms a protective layer that shields us from the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays. Thus it is vital for Human survival. This beneficial ozone has been partially destroyed by man-made chemicals, causing what is sometimes called a "hole in the ozone." The good news is, this hole is diminishing.

Ozone at ground level is a harmful air pollutant, because of its effects on people and the environment, and it is the main ingredient in “Photochemical smog."

Tropospheric, or ground-level ozone, is not emitted directly into the air but is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). This happens when pollutants emitted by cars, power plants, industrial boilers, refineries, chemical plants, and other sources chemically react in the presence of sunlight.

Ozone is most likely to reach unhealthy levels on hot sunny days in urban environments, but can still reach high levels during colder months. Ozone can also be transported long distances by wind, so even rural areas can experience high ozone levels.

Photochemical smog
Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels, along with being naturally emitted from things such as volcanoes and forest fires (it is the immense concentration of these pollutants within cities that is of the most concern, however, as natural emissions tend to spread out over larger areas). When exposed to ultraviolet radiation, NO2 goes through a complex series of reactions with hydrocarbons to produce the components of photochemical smog—a mixture of ozone, nitric acid, aldehydes, peroxyacetyl nitrates (PANs) and other secondary pollutants.

NO2, ozone and PANs are called photochemical oxidants because they can react and oxidize certain compounds in the atmosphere or within a person's lungs that are not normally oxidized. Even small traces of these chemicals can affect the respiratory tract of humans and animals, and damage crops and trees.

Q3. Which of the following is part of India’s Climate goals submitted at the Paris summit in 2015?

1. Reduction in the emissions intensity of gross domestic product (GDP) by 33 to 35% by 2030 from the 2005 level
2. Achieving about 50% cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030
3. Creating an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030

Select the correct answer from the codes given Below

a. 1 and 2 only
b. 2 and 3 only
c. 1 and 3 only
d. 1, 2 and 3

Answer : c

Why is the Question ?

India has three quantitative climate change goals -- reduction in the emissions intensity of gross domestic product (GDP) by 33 to 35% by 2030 from the 2005 level, achieving about 40% cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel- based energy resources by 2030 and creating an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.

Q4. Which of the following is/are correctly Matched?

Initiative Leader
1 International Solar Alliance France
2 Coalition For Disaster Resilient Infrastructure
3 Peace Forest Initiative South Korea

Select the correct answer from the codes given Below
a. 1 and 2 only
b. 2 and 3 only
c. 1 and 3 only
d. 1, 2 and 3

Answer : d

Why is the Question ?

The launch of the International Solar Alliance (ISA) was announced by H.E. Mr Narendra Modi, the Hon’ble Prime Minister of India and H.E. Mr Francois Hollande, former Hon’ble President of France on 30th November 2015, at the 21st session of the United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP-21) in Paris, France. Former UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon attended the launch, alongside the Heads of about 120 nations who affirmed their participation in the Alliance to dedicate efforts for the promotion of solar energy.

Peace Forest Initiative: It is an initiative of South Korea to use ecological restoration as a peace-building process. It aims at addressing the issue of land degradation in conflict-torn border areas and would go a long way in alleviating tensions and building trust between communities living there and between enemy countries in particular.

The Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) is a partnership of national governments, UN agencies and programmes, multilateral development banks and financing mechanisms, the private sector, and knowledge institutions that aims to promote the resilience of new and existing infrastructure systems to climate and disaster risks in support of sustainable development.

CDRI promotes rapid development of resilient infrastructure to respond to the Sustainable Development Goals’ imperatives of expanding universal access to basic services, enabling prosperity and decent work. It is located in New Delhi, India.

Indian Prime Minister, at the Hamburg G20, meet in 2017, proposed Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI). It may be taken up at the G7 meet next month in Biarritz, where India has been invited by hosts France, along with Australia, Chile and South Africa.

Q5. The government wants to meet the target for installing 175 GW of renewable energy capacity. Which of the following renewable energy is/are part of the proposed programme?

1. Solar
2. Wind
3. Geothermal

4. Biomass
5. Large Hydro
6. Small Hydro

Select the correct answer from the codes given Below

a. 1, 2, 3 and 6
b. 1, 2, 4 and 5
c. 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6
d. 1, 2, 4 and 6

Answer : d

Why is the Question ?

175-GW target
The government wants to meet the target for installing 175 GW of renewable energy capacity (excluding large hydro) by producing 100 GW from solar, 60 GW from wind, 10 GW from biomass and 5 GW from small hydro.