Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 03.01.22

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 03.01.22

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) | Date 03.01.22

Q1. Consider the following statements

1. Census is done as per the Census act, 1948
2. National Population Register has also its origin in the Census act, 1948

Which of the above is/are correct?

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : a

Why is the Question ?

Census first phase, NPR data collection deferred till Sept.

1. The first phase of the census and the collection of details to update the National Population Register (NPR) have been postponed at least till September.
2. The Registrar-General of India (RGI) had in December informed the States that the freezing of boundaries of districts, sub-districts, tehsils, talukas and police stations had been postponed till June 2022.
3. Freezing of boundary limits of administrative units, at least three months prior to the exercise, is a prerequisite for conducting the census. Even if the RGI issues an order in June to freeze the boundaries again, the exercise can take place only in September.
4. The first phase of Census 2021 — the House listing and Housing Census along with updating the NPR — was scheduled to be held between April and September 2020 but was postponed due to the pandemic. 

Q2. Which of the following are Air sports?

1. Aerobatics
2. Ballooning
3. Paragliding
4. Skydiving

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

a. 1, 2 and 3
b. 2, 3 and 4
c. 1, 2 and 4
d. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer : d

Why is the Question ?

Draft national air sports policy pushes for safety standards

1. The government released a draft national policy for air sports in the country that will require entities providing these services and their equipment to be registered, as well as be liable for penalties.
2. The policy proposes a two-tier governance structure for air sports in the country, which will include an apex governing body called the Air Sports Federation of India (ASFI) and associations for each air sport.
3. It will cover activities like aerobatics, aeromodelling, amateur-built and experimental aircraft, ballooning, drones,gliding, hang gliding, paragliding, microlighting, paramotoring, skydiving, and vintage aircraft.
4. The ASFI will be an autonomous body under the Ministry of Civil Aviation and will represent India at the Lausanneheadquartered Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) and other global platforms related to air sports.
5. It will provide governance over various aspects of air sports, including regulation, certification, competitions, awards and penalties.
6. Each air sports association will lay down its safety standards for equipment, infrastructure, personnel and training, and specify the disciplinary actions to be taken in case of noncompliance. Inability to do so may lead to penal action by the ASFI.
Registration required
1. All persons and entities providing air sports services will be required to register as members of the respective air sports associations. Key equipment used will also have to be registered.
2. It is proposed that popular air sports attractions in the country such as Bir Billing in Himachal Pradesh, Gangtok in Sikkim, Hadapsar in Maharashtra and Vagamon in Kerala can be declared as a “control zone” for air sports in order to ensure the safety of other manned aircraft.
3. Schools and colleges will be encouraged to include air sports in their curriculum and their students will have the opportunity to participate in the FAI’s international competitions. 

4. The draft policy also aims to promote domestic design, development and manufacturing of air sports equipment under the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan; waive import duty on equipment for a few years; as well as request the GST Council to consider rationalising the GST rate on-air sports equipment to 5% or less.

Q3. Malabar was originally a bilateral exercise between

a. India and USA
b. India and Japan
c. Australia and India
d. India and Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD)

Answer : a

Why is the Question ?

What is the Malabar Exercise?
Malabar is a multilateral war-gaming naval exercise that was started in 1992. It began as a bilateral exercise between the navies of India and the United States. Two more editions of the exercise were carried out in 1995 and 1996, after which there was a break until 2002 in the aftermath of India’s nuclear tests.
From 2002 onward, the exercise has been conducted every year. Japan and Australia first participated in 2007, and since 2014, India, the US and Japan have participated in the exercise every year. 

Q4. Consider the following statements about Acid rain

1. Acid rain is linked to air pollution
2. Acid rain has a normal pH range from 6-8
3. It is responsible for the killing aquatic life

Which of the above is/are correct?
a. 1 and 2 only
b. 2 and 3 only
c. 1 and 3 only
d. 1, 2 and 3

Answer : c

Why is the Question ?

Acid rain, or acid deposition, is a broad term that includes any form of precipitation with acidic components, such as sulfuric or nitric acid that fall to the ground from the atmosphere in wet or dry forms. This can include rain, snow, fog, hail or even dust that is acidic.
What Causes Acid Rain?
Acid rain results when sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) are emitted into the atmosphere and transported by wind and air currents. The SO2 and NOX react with water, oxygen and other chemicals to form sulfuric and nitric acids. These then mix with water and other materials before falling to the ground.
While a small portion of the SO2 and NOX that cause acid rain is from natural sources such as volcanoes, most of it comes from the burning of fossil fuels. The major sources of SO2 and NOX in the atmosphere are:
1. Burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity. Two-thirds of SO2 and one-fourth of NOX in the atmosphere come from electric power generators. Thus acid rain is linked to air pollution.
2. Vehicles and heavy equipment.   

3. Manufacturing, oil refineries and other industries.
Winds can blow SO2 and NOX over long distances and across borders making acid rain a problem for everyone and not just those who live close to these sources.

Acidity and alkalinity are measured using a pH scale for which 7.0 is neutral. The lower a substance's pH (less than 7), the more acidic it is; the higher a substance's pH (greater than 7), the more alkaline it is. Normal rain has a pH of about 5.6; it is slightly acidic because carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolves into it forming weak carbonic acid. Acid rain usually has a pH between 4.2 and 4.4.

This image illustrates the pathway for acid rain in our environment: (1) Emissions of SO2 and NOx are released into the air, where (2) the pollutants are transformed into acid particles that may be transported long distances. (3) These acid particles then fall to the earth as wet and dry deposition (dust, rain, snow, etc.) and (4) may cause harmful effects on soil, forests, streams, and lakes. 

Forms of Acid Deposition
Wet Deposition

Wet deposition is what we most commonly think of as acid rain. The sulfuric and nitric acids formed in the atmosphere fall to the ground mixed with rain, snow, fog, or hail.
Dry Deposition
Acidic particles and gases can also deposit from the atmosphere in the absence of moisture as dry deposition. The acidic particles and gases may deposit to surfaces (water bodies, vegetation, buildings) quickly or may react during atmospheric transport to form larger particles that can be harmful to human health. When the accumulated acids are washed off a surface by the next rain, this acidic water flows over and through the ground, and can harm plants and wildlife, such as insects and fish. The amount of acidity in the atmosphere that deposits to earth through dry deposition depends on the amount of rainfall an area receives. For example, in desert areas, the ratio of dry to wet deposition is higher than in an area that receives several inches of rain each year.
Ecological effects of acid deposition
1. Effects on lakes and rivers
2. Effects on forested and mountainous regions
3. Effects on human-made structures
Effects on lakes and rivers
The regional effects of acid deposition were first noted in parts of western Europe and eastern North America in the late 1960s and early 1970s when changes in the chemistry of rivers and lakes, often in remote locations, were linked to declines in the health of aquatic organisms such as resident fish, crayfish, and clam populations. Increasing amounts of acid deposition in sensitive areas caused tens of thousands of lakes and streams in Europe and North America to become much more acidic than they had been in previous decades. Acid-sensitive areas are those that are predisposed to acidification because the region’s soils have a low buffering capacity, or low acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). In addition, acidification can release aluminium bound to soils, which in its dissolved form can be toxic to both plant and animal life. High concentrations of dissolved aluminium released from soils often enter streams and lakes. In conjunction with rising acidity in aquatic environments, aluminium can damage fish gills and thus impair respiration. In the Adirondack Mountain region of New York state, research has shown that the number of fish species drops from five in lakes with a pH of 6.0 to 7.0 to only one in lakes with a pH of 4.0 to 4.5. Other organisms are also negatively affected so that acidified bodies of water lose plant and animal diversity overall. These effects can ripple throughout the food chain.