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APSC/UPSC Model Question & Answers (General Studies-III)

Q1. Account for the reasons the bay of Bengal is more prone to devastating Tropical cyclones than  the  Arabian  sea.  Also,  discuss recent changes in cyclones patterns in  the  Arabian  sea  and  their impact.
Q1. Discuss the policy framework and administrative setup to manage tropical cyclone disaster.

The Bay of Bengal sees approximately five times as many cyclones as its Western counterpart. In addition, cyclones in the Bay are stronger and deadlier. And what’s more, nearly 58% of cyclones formed in the Bay of Bengal reach the coast as compared to only 25% of those formed in the Arabian Sea.


  1. Geography: The worst places for storm surges tend to be shallow, concave bays where water, pushed by the strong winds of a tropical cyclone, gets concentrated or funnelled as the storm moves up the bay. The Bay of Bengal is a textbook example of this type of geography.
  2. Sea surface temperature: The shallow sea has a high sea surface temperature.
  3. The highly populous coastline also exacerbates the threat
  4. low lying areas along the Bay
  5. Location near the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) creates a zone of low pressure.
  6. Climate change further adding to the problem.
  7. Link with Pacific ocean also channels wind system from violent pacific to the bay of Bengal

Recent changes in patterns:

  1. Climate change led warming of the Arabian sea has made it more prone to Cyclones than the earlier period
  2. Arabian sea cyclones now impact whole western coastlines from Gujarat to Tamilnadu
  3. The frequency and intensity of cyclones have increased. Also, rapid intensification is taking place as depression turns into a very severe cyclone within a day.

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